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Formation of the Immunosuppressive Microenvironment of Classic Hodgkin Lymphoma and Therapeutic Approaches to Counter It

Molecular Oncology, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico di Aviano (CRO) IRCCS, 33081 Aviano (PN), Italy
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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(10), 2416; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20102416
Received: 17 April 2019 / Revised: 10 May 2019 / Accepted: 13 May 2019 / Published: 15 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Microenvironment 2019)
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Abstract

Classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is characterized by a few tumor cells surrounded by a protective, immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment composed of normal cells that are an active part of the disease. Hodgkin and Reed–Sternberg (HRS) cells evade the immune system through a variety of different mechanisms. They evade antitumor effector T cells and natural killer cells and promote T cell exhaustion. Using cytokines and extracellular vesicles, they recruit normal cells, induce their proliferation and “educate” (i.e. reprogram) them to become immunosuppressive and protumorigenic. Therefore, alternative treatment strategies are being developed to target not only tumor cells but also the tumor microenvironment. Here we summarize current knowledge on the ability of HRS cells to build their microenvironment and to educate normal cells to become immunosuppressive. We also describe therapeutic strategies to counteract formation of the tumor microenvironment and related processes leading to T cell exhaustion and repolarization of immunosuppressive tumor-associated macrophages. View Full-Text
Keywords: Hodgkin lymphoma; tumor microenvironment; immune escape; tumor-associated macrophages Hodgkin lymphoma; tumor microenvironment; immune escape; tumor-associated macrophages
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Aldinucci, D.; Borghese, C.; Casagrande, N. Formation of the Immunosuppressive Microenvironment of Classic Hodgkin Lymphoma and Therapeutic Approaches to Counter It. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 2416.

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