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Glycine Relieves Intestinal Injury by Maintaining mTOR Signaling and Suppressing AMPK, TLR4, and NOD Signaling in Weaned Piglets after Lipopolysaccharide Challenge

Hubei Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Animal Nutrition and Feed Safety, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan 430023, China
Zhe Jiang Goshine Test Technologies Co., Ltd., Hangzhou 310030, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 1980;
Received: 13 April 2018 / Revised: 2 July 2018 / Accepted: 3 July 2018 / Published: 6 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) 2018)
This study was conducted to envaluate whether glycine could alleviate Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal injury by regulating intestinal epithelial energy status, protein synthesis, and inflammatory response via AMPK, mTOR, TLR4, and NOD signaling pathways. A total of 24 weanling piglets were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 treatments: (1) non-challenged control; (2) LPS-challenged control; (3) LPS + 1% glycine; (4) LPS + 2% glycine. After 28 days feeding, piglets were injected intraperitoneally with saline or LPS. The pigs were slaughtered and intestinal samples were collected at 4 h postinjection. The mRNA expression of key genes in these signaling pathways was measured by real-time PCR. The protein abundance was measured by Western blot analysis. Supplementation with glycine increased jejunal villus height/crypt depth ratio. Glycine also increased the jejunal and ileal protein content, RNA/DNA ratio, and jejunal protein/DNA ratio. The activities of citroyl synthetase in ileum, and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex in jejunum, were increased in the piglets fed diets supplemented with glycine. In addition, glycine decreased the jejunal and ileal phosphorylation of AMPKα, and increased ileal phosphorylation of mTOR. Furthermore, glycine downregulated the mRNA expression of key genes in inflammatory signaling. Meanwhile, glycine increased the mRNA expression of negative regulators of inflammatory signaling. These results indicate that glycine supplementation could improve energy status and protein synthesis by regulating AMPK and mTOR signaling pathways, and relieve inflammation by inhibiting of TLR4 and NOD signaling pathways to alleviate intestinal injury in LPS-challenged piglets. View Full-Text
Keywords: glycine; inflammatory response; intestine; LPS; weanling piglets glycine; inflammatory response; intestine; LPS; weanling piglets
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MDPI and ACS Style

Xu, X.; Wang, X.; Wu, H.; Zhu, H.; Liu, C.; Hou, Y.; Dai, B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. Glycine Relieves Intestinal Injury by Maintaining mTOR Signaling and Suppressing AMPK, TLR4, and NOD Signaling in Weaned Piglets after Lipopolysaccharide Challenge. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1980.

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