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Lead (Pb) Exposure Enhances Expression of Factors Associated with Inflammation

1
Department of Biochemistry and Medical Chemistry, Pomeranian Medical University, Powstańców Wlkp. 72, 70-111 Szczecin, Poland
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Department of Biochemistry and Human Nutrition, Pomeranian Medical University, Broniewskiego 24, 71-460 Szczecin, Poland
3
Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Pomeranian Medical University, Powstańców Wlkp. 72, 70-111 Szczecin, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1813; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061813
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 31 May 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Toxicology)
The human immune system is constantly exposed to xenobiotics and pathogens from the environment. Although the mechanisms underlying their influence have already been at least partially recognized, the effects of some factors, such as lead (Pb), still need to be clarified. The results of many studies indicate that Pb has a negative effect on the immune system, and in our review, we summarize the most recent evidence that Pb can promote inflammatory response. We also discuss possible molecular and biochemical mechanisms of its proinflammatory action, including the influence of Pb on cytokine metabolism (interleukins IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-1b, IL-6), interferon gamma (IFNγ), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α); the activity and expression of enzymes involved in the inflammatory process (cyclooxygenases); and the effect on selected acute phase proteins: C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin, and ceruloplasmin. We also discuss the influence of Pb on the immune system cells (T and B lymphocytes, macrophages, Langerhans cells) and the secretion of IgA, IgE, IgG, histamine, and endothelin. View Full-Text
Keywords: lead (Pb); inflammatory processes; cytokines; interleukins lead (Pb); inflammatory processes; cytokines; interleukins
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MDPI and ACS Style

Metryka, E.; Chibowska, K.; Gutowska, I.; Falkowska, A.; Kupnicka, P.; Barczak, K.; Chlubek, D.; Baranowska-Bosiacka, I. Lead (Pb) Exposure Enhances Expression of Factors Associated with Inflammation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1813. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061813

AMA Style

Metryka E, Chibowska K, Gutowska I, Falkowska A, Kupnicka P, Barczak K, Chlubek D, Baranowska-Bosiacka I. Lead (Pb) Exposure Enhances Expression of Factors Associated with Inflammation. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(6):1813. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061813

Chicago/Turabian Style

Metryka, Emilia, Karina Chibowska, Izabela Gutowska, Anna Falkowska, Patrycja Kupnicka, Katarzyna Barczak, Dariusz Chlubek, and Irena Baranowska-Bosiacka. 2018. "Lead (Pb) Exposure Enhances Expression of Factors Associated with Inflammation" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 19, no. 6: 1813. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061813

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