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Review

Disease Modeling Using 3D Organoids Derived from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

by 1,2,†, 1,† and 1,2,*
1
Disease Modeling and Therapeutics Laboratory, A*STAR Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, 61 Biopolis Drive Proteos, Singapore 138673, Singapore
2
Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543, Singapore
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(4), 936; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19040936
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 21 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Disease Modeling Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells)
The rising interest in human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived organoid culture has stemmed from the manipulation of various combinations of directed multi-lineage differentiation and morphogenetic processes that mimic organogenesis. Organoids are three-dimensional (3D) structures that are comprised of multiple cell types, self-organized to recapitulate embryonic and tissue development in vitro. This model has been shown to be superior to conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell culture methods in mirroring functionality, architecture, and geometric features of tissues seen in vivo. This review serves to highlight recent advances in the 3D organoid technology for use in modeling complex hereditary diseases, cancer, host–microbe interactions, and possible use in translational and personalized medicine where organoid cultures were used to uncover diagnostic biomarkers for early disease detection via high throughput pharmaceutical screening. In addition, this review also aims to discuss the advantages and shortcomings of utilizing organoids in disease modeling. In summary, studying human diseases using hiPSC-derived organoids may better illustrate the processes involved due to similarities in the architecture and microenvironment present in an organoid, which also allows drug responses to be properly recapitulated in vitro. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3D organoids; disease modeling; human induced pluripotent stem cells; microenvironment; neurodevelopmental disorders; drug screening; infectious diseases; hereditary diseases; genome editing; CRISPR/Cas-9 3D organoids; disease modeling; human induced pluripotent stem cells; microenvironment; neurodevelopmental disorders; drug screening; infectious diseases; hereditary diseases; genome editing; CRISPR/Cas-9
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ho, B.X.; Pek, N.M.Q.; Soh, B.-S. Disease Modeling Using 3D Organoids Derived from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 936. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19040936

AMA Style

Ho BX, Pek NMQ, Soh B-S. Disease Modeling Using 3D Organoids Derived from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(4):936. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19040936

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ho, Beatrice X., Nicole M.Q. Pek, and Boon-Seng Soh. 2018. "Disease Modeling Using 3D Organoids Derived from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 19, no. 4: 936. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19040936

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