Next Article in Journal
Sorafenib in Combination with Betulinic Acid Synergistically Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Inhibits Clonogenic Activity in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Cells
Next Article in Special Issue
Endothelial Microsomal Prostaglandin E Synthetase-1 Upregulates Vascularity and Endothelial Interleukin-1β in Deteriorative Progression of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis
Previous Article in Journal
Epigallocatechin Gallate-Modified Gelatins with Different Compositions Alter the Quality of Regenerated Bones
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 3233;

Emerging Role of Follicular T Helper Cells in Multiple Sclerosis and Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
Arthritis and Clinical Immunology Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 October 2018 / Revised: 18 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Molecular Mechanisms in Multiple Sclerosis)
PDF [530 KB, uploaded 19 October 2018]


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder where both T cells and B cells are implicated in pathology. However, it remains unclear how these two distinct populations cooperate to drive disease. There is ample evidence from studies in both MS patients and mouse models that Th17, B cells, and follicular T helper (TFH) cells contribute to disease. This review article describes the literature that identifies mechanisms by which Th17, TFH, and B cells cooperatively drive disease activity in MS and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The curation of this literature has identified that central nervous system (CNS) infiltrating TFH cells act with TH17 cell to contribute to an inflammatory B cell response in neuroinflammation. This demonstrates that TFH cells and their products are promising targets for therapies in MS. View Full-Text
Keywords: TFH; B-cells; multiple sclerosis; EAE; TH17 TFH; B-cells; multiple sclerosis; EAE; TH17

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Quinn, J.L.; Axtell, R.C. Emerging Role of Follicular T Helper Cells in Multiple Sclerosis and Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 3233.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top