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Emerging Role of Follicular T Helper Cells in Multiple Sclerosis and Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

by James L. Quinn 1,2,* and Robert C. Axtell 2,*
1
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
2
Arthritis and Clinical Immunology Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 3233; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103233
Received: 2 October 2018 / Revised: 18 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Molecular Mechanisms in Multiple Sclerosis)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder where both T cells and B cells are implicated in pathology. However, it remains unclear how these two distinct populations cooperate to drive disease. There is ample evidence from studies in both MS patients and mouse models that Th17, B cells, and follicular T helper (TFH) cells contribute to disease. This review article describes the literature that identifies mechanisms by which Th17, TFH, and B cells cooperatively drive disease activity in MS and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The curation of this literature has identified that central nervous system (CNS) infiltrating TFH cells act with TH17 cell to contribute to an inflammatory B cell response in neuroinflammation. This demonstrates that TFH cells and their products are promising targets for therapies in MS. View Full-Text
Keywords: TFH; B-cells; multiple sclerosis; EAE; TH17 TFH; B-cells; multiple sclerosis; EAE; TH17
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Quinn, J.L.; Axtell, R.C. Emerging Role of Follicular T Helper Cells in Multiple Sclerosis and Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 3233.

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