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Oxidative Stress and the Kidney in the Space Environment

1
Department of Nephrology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina, Greece
2
Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, 1st Department of Internal Medicine, AHEPA Hospital, School of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54636 Thessaloniki, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 3176; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103176
Received: 29 July 2018 / Revised: 8 October 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 15 October 2018
In space, the special conditions of hypogravity and exposure to cosmic radiation have substantial differences compared to terrestrial circumstances, and a multidimensional impact on the human body and human organ functions. Cosmic radiation provokes cellular and gene damage, and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to a dysregulation in the oxidants–antioxidants balance, and to the inflammatory response. Other practical factors contributing to these dysregulations in space environment include increased bone resorption, impaired anabolic response, and even difficulties in detecting oxidative stress in blood and urine samples. Enhanced oxidative stress affects mitochondrial and endothelial functions, contributes to reduced natriuresis and the development of hypertension, and may play an additive role in the formation of kidney stones. Finally, the composition of urine protein excretion is significantly altered, depicting possible tubular dysfunction. View Full-Text
Keywords: cosmic radiation; microgravity; kidney; oxidative stress; space cosmic radiation; microgravity; kidney; oxidative stress; space
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pavlakou, P.; Dounousi, E.; Roumeliotis, S.; Eleftheriadis, T.; Liakopoulos, V. Oxidative Stress and the Kidney in the Space Environment. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 3176.

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