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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(8), 1758;

Endocytosis of Albumin Induces Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 by Activating the ERK Signaling Pathway in Renal Tubule Epithelial Cells

Department of Physiology, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30310, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 June 2017 / Revised: 6 August 2017 / Accepted: 9 August 2017 / Published: 12 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease 2017)
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Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is dysregulated in chronic kidney diseases including diabetic nephropathy. This study was performed to examine the expression of MMP-9 in renal tubule epithelial cells (TECs) under diabetic conditions and its regulatory mechanisms. We characterized MMP-9 protein in diabetic animals and primary cultured rat TECs exposed to exogenous albumin and high glucose. We also used specific inhibitors to determine if internalization of albumin and/or extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation were required for MMP-9 secretion. Immunostaining of kidney sections revealed enhanced MMP-9 signal in the damaged proximal tubules in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. ZDF rats also exhibited an albuminuria-related and age-dependent increase in MMP-9 excretion, which was prevented by rosiglitazone. In primary cultured rat TECs, high glucose exposure did not increase MMP-9 secretion. In contrast, administration of rat serum albumin (RSA, 0.1–0.5 mg/mL) resulted in a dose-dependent increase in MMP-9 expression and secretion by TECs, which was abolished in the presence of an ERK1/2-specific inhibitor, U0126. Simvastatin, an inhibitor of albumin endocytosis, also prevented MMP-9 secretion. Taken together, these results demonstrate that endocytosis of albumin stimulates MMP-9 secretion by TECs through the ERK signaling pathway. View Full-Text
Keywords: chronic kidney disease; diabetes; MMP-9; albuminuria; U0126; simvastatin chronic kidney disease; diabetes; MMP-9; albuminuria; U0126; simvastatin

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Chen, X.; Cobbs, A.; George, J.; Chima, A.; Tuyishime, F.; Zhao, X. Endocytosis of Albumin Induces Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 by Activating the ERK Signaling Pathway in Renal Tubule Epithelial Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1758.

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