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An In Vitro Potency Assay for Monitoring the Immunomodulatory Potential of Stromal Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles
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Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles and Their Potential as Novel Immunomodulatory Therapeutic Agents

Institute for Transfusion Medicine, University Hospital Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Virchowstr. 179, 45147 Essen, Germany
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1450; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18071450
Received: 15 June 2017 / Revised: 28 June 2017 / Accepted: 30 June 2017 / Published: 6 July 2017
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes and microvesicles, have been identified as mediators of a newly-discovered intercellular communication system. They are essential signaling mediators in various physiological and pathophysiological processes. Depending on their origin, they fulfill different functions. EVs of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been found to promote comparable therapeutic activities as MSCs themselves. In a variety of in vivo models, it has been observed that they suppress pro-inflammatory processes and reduce oxidative stress and fibrosis. By switching pro-inflammatory into tolerogenic immune responses, MSC-EVs very likely promote tissue regeneration by creating a pro-regenerative environment allowing endogenous stem and progenitor cells to successfully repair affected tissues. Accordingly, MSC-EVs provide a novel, very promising therapeutic agent, which has already been successfully applied to humans. However, the MSC-EV production process has not been standardized, yet. Indeed, a collection of different protocols has been used for the MSC-EV production, characterization and application. By focusing on kidney, heart, liver and brain injuries, we have reviewed the major outcomes of published MSC-EV in vivo studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: mesenchymal stem/stromal cells; cell therapy; extracellular vesicles; exosomes; microvesicles; immunomodulation mesenchymal stem/stromal cells; cell therapy; extracellular vesicles; exosomes; microvesicles; immunomodulation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Börger, V.; Bremer, M.; Ferrer-Tur, R.; Gockeln, L.; Stambouli, O.; Becic, A.; Giebel, B. Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles and Their Potential as Novel Immunomodulatory Therapeutic Agents. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1450. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18071450

AMA Style

Börger V, Bremer M, Ferrer-Tur R, Gockeln L, Stambouli O, Becic A, Giebel B. Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles and Their Potential as Novel Immunomodulatory Therapeutic Agents. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2017; 18(7):1450. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18071450

Chicago/Turabian Style

Börger, Verena; Bremer, Michel; Ferrer-Tur, Rita; Gockeln, Lena; Stambouli, Oumaima; Becic, Amina; Giebel, Bernd. 2017. "Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles and Their Potential as Novel Immunomodulatory Therapeutic Agents" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 18, no. 7: 1450. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18071450

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