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Open AccessArticle

5-(3′,4′-Dihydroxyphenyl-γ-valerolactone), a Major Microbial Metabolite of Proanthocyanidin, Attenuates THP-1 Monocyte-Endothelial Adhesion

1
Department of Food Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
2
Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
3
Major in Biomodulation, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1363; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18071363
Received: 27 April 2017 / Revised: 7 June 2017 / Accepted: 22 June 2017 / Published: 26 June 2017
Several metabolomics of polymeric flavan-3-ols have reported that proanthocyanidins are extensively metabolized by gut microbiota. 5-(3′,4′-dihydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactone (DHPV) has been reported to be the major microbial metabolite of proanthocyanidins. We demonstrated that DHPV has stronger prevention effect on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-stimulated adhesion of THP-1 human monocytic cells to human umbilical vein endothelial cells compared to its potential precursors such as procyanidin A1, A2, B1 and B2, (+)catechin, (−)epicatechin and its microbial metabolites such as 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propionic acid and 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)acetic acid. Mechanism study showed that DHPV prevents THP-1 monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion by downregulating TNF-α-stimulated expressions of the two biomarkers of atherosclerosis such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1, activation of nuclear factor kappa B transcription and phosphorylation of I kappa-B kinase and IκBα. We suggested that DHPV has higher potentiality in prevention of atherosclerosis among the proanthocyanidin metabolites. View Full-Text
Keywords: 5-(3′,4′-dihydroxyphenyl-γ-valerolactone); proanthocyanidin microbial metabolite; atherosclerosis prevention; monocyte-endothelial adhesion 5-(3′,4′-dihydroxyphenyl-γ-valerolactone); proanthocyanidin microbial metabolite; atherosclerosis prevention; monocyte-endothelial adhesion
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, C.C.; Kim, J.H.; Kim, J.S.; Oh, Y.S.; Han, S.M.; Park, J.H.Y.; Lee, K.W.; Lee, C.Y. 5-(3′,4′-Dihydroxyphenyl-γ-valerolactone), a Major Microbial Metabolite of Proanthocyanidin, Attenuates THP-1 Monocyte-Endothelial Adhesion. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 1363. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18071363

AMA Style

Lee CC, Kim JH, Kim JS, Oh YS, Han SM, Park JHY, Lee KW, Lee CY. 5-(3′,4′-Dihydroxyphenyl-γ-valerolactone), a Major Microbial Metabolite of Proanthocyanidin, Attenuates THP-1 Monocyte-Endothelial Adhesion. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2017; 18(7):1363. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18071363

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lee, Charles C.; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Ji Seung; Oh, Yun Sil; Han, Seung Min; Park, Jung Han Yoon; Lee, Ki Won; Lee, Chang Yong. 2017. "5-(3′,4′-Dihydroxyphenyl-γ-valerolactone), a Major Microbial Metabolite of Proanthocyanidin, Attenuates THP-1 Monocyte-Endothelial Adhesion" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 18, no. 7: 1363. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18071363

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