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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2482; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112482

Vitamin D and Neurological Diseases: An Endocrine View

1
IRCCS SDN, Napoli Via Gianturco 113, 80143 Naples, Italy
2
Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Chirurgia, Divisione di Endocrinologia Università “Federico II” Napoli, 80138 Napoli, Italy
3
I.O.S. & COLEMAN Srl, 80011 Napoli, Italy
4
Division of General Medicine, IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Ospedale S. Giuseppe, Via Cadorna 90, 28824 Piancavallo VB, Italy
5
Department of Translational Medicine, University of Piemonte Orientale, Via Solaroli 17, 28100 Novara, Italy
6
Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Università di Milano, 20122 Milano, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 October 2017 / Revised: 18 November 2017 / Accepted: 20 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
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Abstract

Vitamin D system comprises hormone precursors, active metabolites, carriers, enzymes, and receptors involved in genomic and non-genomic effects. In addition to classical bone-related effects, this system has also been shown to activate multiple molecular mediators and elicit many physiological functions. In vitro and in vivo studies have, in fact, increasingly focused on the “non-calcemic” actions of vitamin D, which are associated with the maintenance of glucose homeostasis, cardiovascular morbidity, autoimmunity, inflammation, and cancer. In parallel, growing evidence has recognized that a multimodal association links vitamin D system to brain development, functions and diseases. With vitamin D deficiency reaching epidemic proportions worldwide, there is now concern that optimal levels of vitamin D in the bloodstream are also necessary to preserve the neurological development and protect the adult brain. The aim of this review is to highlight the relationship between vitamin D and neurological diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; neurological disease; biomarker; hormones vitamin D; neurological disease; biomarker; hormones
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Di Somma, C.; Scarano, E.; Barrea, L.; Zhukouskaya, V.V.; Savastano, S.; Mele, C.; Scacchi, M.; Aimaretti, G.; Colao, A.; Marzullo, P. Vitamin D and Neurological Diseases: An Endocrine View. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2482.

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