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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(11), 2235; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112235

Association of Smoking with Metabolic Volatile Organic Compounds in Exhaled Breath

1
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering of Ministry of Education of China, Zhejiang University, 38 Zheda Road, Zhou Yi Qing Building, Hangzhou 310027, China
2
Department of Family Medicine, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 3 Qingchun E Rd, Hangzhou 310016, China
3
Department of Biomedical Data Science, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth College, One Medical Center Drive, Lebanon, NH 03756, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 September 2017 / Revised: 16 October 2017 / Accepted: 20 October 2017 / Published: 25 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inhaled Pollutants Modulate Respiratory and Systemic Diseases)
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Abstract

Lung cancer (LC) screening will be more efficient if it is applied to a well-defined high-risk population. Characteristics including metabolic byproducts may be taken into account to access LC risk more precisely. Breath examination provides a non-invasive method to monitor metabolic byproducts. However, the association between volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath and LC risk or LC risk factors is not studied. Exhaled breath samples from 122 healthy persons, who were given routine annual exam from December 2015 to December 2016, were analyzed using thermal desorption coupled with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). Smoking characteristics, air quality, and other risk factors for lung cancer were collected. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between VOCs and LC risk factors. 7, 7, 11, and 27 VOCs were correlated with smoking status, smoking intensity, years of smoking, and depth of inhalation, respectively. Exhaled VOCs are related to smoking and might have a potential to evaluate LC risk more precisely. Both an assessment of temporal stability and testing in a prospective study are needed to establish the performance of VOCs such as 2,5-dimethylfuranm and 4-methyloctane as lung cancer risk biomarkers. View Full-Text
Keywords: lung cancer; volatile organic compounds; smoking; breath test lung cancer; volatile organic compounds; smoking; breath test
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Chen, X.; Wang, F.; Lin, L.; Dong, H.; Huang, F.; Ghulam Muhammad, K.; Chen, L.; Gorlova, O.Y. Association of Smoking with Metabolic Volatile Organic Compounds in Exhaled Breath. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2235.

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