Next Article in Journal
The Ultimaster Biodegradable-Polymer Sirolimus-Eluting Stent: An Updated Review of Clinical Evidence
Next Article in Special Issue
PlGF and VEGF-A Regulate Growth of High-Risk MYCN-Single Copy Neuroblastoma Xenografts via Different Mechanisms
Previous Article in Journal
Diabetes and Hypertension Consistently Predict the Presence and Extent of Coronary Artery Calcification in Symptomatic Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Previous Article in Special Issue
Antiplatelet Usage Impacts Clot Density in Acute Anterior Circulation Ischemic Stroke
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1489;

Escaping Antiangiogenic Therapy: Strategies Employed by Cancer Cells

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 8331150, Chile
Center for Integrative Medicine and Innovative Science, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Andrés Bello, Santiago 8370071, Chile
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8380456, Chile
Department of Hematology-Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 8330032, Chile
Center UC Investigation in Oncology (CITO), Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 8330023, Chile
Biomedical Research Consortium of Chile, Santiago 8331150, Chile
Millennium Institute on Immunology & Immunotherapy, Santiago 8331150, Chile
Advanced Center for Chronic Diseases (ACCDiS), Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8380492, Chile
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Shaker Mousa
Received: 10 July 2016 / Revised: 22 August 2016 / Accepted: 30 August 2016 / Published: 6 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vascular Biology and Therapeutics)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2097 KB, uploaded 6 September 2016]   |  


Tumor angiogenesis is widely recognized as one of the “hallmarks of cancer”. Consequently, during the last decades the development and testing of commercial angiogenic inhibitors has been a central focus for both basic and clinical cancer research. While antiangiogenic drugs are now incorporated into standard clinical practice, as with all cancer therapies, tumors can eventually become resistant by employing a variety of strategies to receive nutrients and oxygen in the event of therapeutic assault. Herein, we concentrate and review in detail three of the principal mechanisms of antiangiogenic therapy escape: (1) upregulation of compensatory/alternative pathways for angiogenesis; (2) vasculogenic mimicry; and (3) vessel co-option. We suggest that an understanding of how a cancer cell adapts to antiangiogenic therapy may also parallel the mechanisms employed in the bourgeoning tumor and isolated metastatic cells delivering responsible for residual disease. Finally, we speculate on strategies to adapt antiangiogenic therapy for future clinical uses. View Full-Text
Keywords: vasculogenic mimicry; vascular co-option; cancer dormancy; residual disease vasculogenic mimicry; vascular co-option; cancer dormancy; residual disease

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Pinto, M.P.; Sotomayor, P.; Carrasco-Avino, G.; Corvalan, A.H.; Owen, G.I. Escaping Antiangiogenic Therapy: Strategies Employed by Cancer Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1489.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top