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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(12), 1943;

Comprehensive Transcriptome Analysis Provides Evidence of Local Thermal Adaptation in Three Loaches (Genus: Misgurnus)

Key Lab of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Education, College of Fisheries, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
Key Lab of Freshwater Animal Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Fisheries, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Céline Audet
Received: 23 August 2016 / Revised: 27 October 2016 / Accepted: 14 November 2016 / Published: 24 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
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The geographic distribution of three Misgurnus species, M. anguillicaudatus, M. bipartitus, and M. mohoity, displays a specific pattern in China, coincident with temperature zones. In this study, we sequenced the transcriptomes of these three species and used the sequences to investigate the lineage-specific adaptations within the genus Misgurnus. In total, 51 orphan genes (19 in M. anguillicaudatus, 18 in M. bipartitus, and 14 in M. mohoity) that may contribute to the species-specific adaptations were identified. An analysis of 1392 one-to-one orthologous genes revealed significantly higher ratios of nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitutions in the M. mohoity lineage than in M. anguillicaudatus. The genes displaying signatures of positive selection and rapid evolution in Misgurnus were involved in four function categories, (1) energy metabolism; (2) signal transduction; (3) membrane; and (4) cell proliferation or apoptosis, implying that these candidate genes play critical roles in the thermal adaptation of the fish to their living environments. We also detected more than five positively selected sites in cldn15lb and isca1, which function as important factors in paracellular Na+ transport and Fe/S cluster assembly, respectively. Overall, our study provides valuable insights into the adaptive evolution of loaches from different temperature zones in China and is a foundation for future studies to clarify the genetic basis of temperature adaptation in fishes. View Full-Text
Keywords: transcriptome; adaptive evolution; temperature zone; Misgurnus transcriptome; adaptive evolution; temperature zone; Misgurnus

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Yi, S.; Wang, S.; Zhong, J.; Wang, W. Comprehensive Transcriptome Analysis Provides Evidence of Local Thermal Adaptation in Three Loaches (Genus: Misgurnus). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1943.

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