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Open AccessArticle

Posttraumatic Inflammation as a Key to Neuroregeneration after Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury

1
Heidelberg Trauma Research Group, Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Center for Orthopedics, Trauma Surgery and Spinal Cord Injury, Heidelberg University Hospital, Schlierbacher Landstraße 200a, D-69118 Heidelberg, Germany
2
Institute for Medical Biometry and Informatics, Heidelberg University Hospital, Im Neuenheimer Feld 305, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany
3
Department of Transplantation Immunology, Institute of Immunology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 305, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany
4
Berufsgenossenschaftliche Unfallklinik Ludwigshafen, Department of Paraplegiology, Ludwig-Guttmann-Straße-13, D-67071 Ludwigshafen, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Xiaofeng Jia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(4), 7900-7916; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms16047900
Received: 4 February 2015 / Revised: 17 March 2015 / Accepted: 26 March 2015 / Published: 9 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurological Injuries’ Monitoring, Tracking and Treatment)
Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines might have a large impact on the secondary phase and on the neurological outcome of patients with acute spinal cord injury (SCI). We measured the serum levels of different cytokines (Interferon-γ, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, Interleukin-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor) over a 12-week period in 40 acute traumatic SCI patients: at admission on average one hour after initial trauma; at four, nine, 12, and 24 h; Three, and seven days after admission; and two, four, eight, and twelve weeks after admission. This was done using a Luminex Performance Human High Sensitivity Cytokine Panel. SCI was classified using the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale (AIS) at time of admission and after 12 weeks. TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 concentrations were significantly higher in patients without neurological remission and in patients with an initial AIS A (p < 0.05). This study shows significant differences in cytokine concentrations shown in traumatic SCI patients with different neurological impairments and within a 12-week period. IL-8 and IL-10 are potential peripheral markers for neurological remission and rehabilitation after traumatic SCI. Furthermore our cytokine expression pattern of the acute, subacute, and intermediate phase of SCI establishes a possible basis for future studies to develop standardized monitoring, prognostic, and tracking techniques. View Full-Text
Keywords: spinal cord injury; neuroregeneration; cytokines; inflammation; trauma spinal cord injury; neuroregeneration; cytokines; inflammation; trauma
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Moghaddam, A.; Child, C.; Bruckner, T.; Gerner, H.J.; Daniel, V.; Biglari, B. Posttraumatic Inflammation as a Key to Neuroregeneration after Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 7900-7916.

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