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Open AccessArticle

Posttraumatic Inflammation as a Key to Neuroregeneration after Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury

Heidelberg Trauma Research Group, Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Center for Orthopedics, Trauma Surgery and Spinal Cord Injury, Heidelberg University Hospital, Schlierbacher Landstraße 200a, D-69118 Heidelberg, Germany
Institute for Medical Biometry and Informatics, Heidelberg University Hospital, Im Neuenheimer Feld 305, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany
Department of Transplantation Immunology, Institute of Immunology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 305, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany
Berufsgenossenschaftliche Unfallklinik Ludwigshafen, Department of Paraplegiology, Ludwig-Guttmann-Straße-13, D-67071 Ludwigshafen, Germany
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Xiaofeng Jia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(4), 7900-7916;
Received: 4 February 2015 / Revised: 17 March 2015 / Accepted: 26 March 2015 / Published: 9 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurological Injuries’ Monitoring, Tracking and Treatment)
Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines might have a large impact on the secondary phase and on the neurological outcome of patients with acute spinal cord injury (SCI). We measured the serum levels of different cytokines (Interferon-γ, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, Interleukin-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor) over a 12-week period in 40 acute traumatic SCI patients: at admission on average one hour after initial trauma; at four, nine, 12, and 24 h; Three, and seven days after admission; and two, four, eight, and twelve weeks after admission. This was done using a Luminex Performance Human High Sensitivity Cytokine Panel. SCI was classified using the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale (AIS) at time of admission and after 12 weeks. TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 concentrations were significantly higher in patients without neurological remission and in patients with an initial AIS A (p < 0.05). This study shows significant differences in cytokine concentrations shown in traumatic SCI patients with different neurological impairments and within a 12-week period. IL-8 and IL-10 are potential peripheral markers for neurological remission and rehabilitation after traumatic SCI. Furthermore our cytokine expression pattern of the acute, subacute, and intermediate phase of SCI establishes a possible basis for future studies to develop standardized monitoring, prognostic, and tracking techniques. View Full-Text
Keywords: spinal cord injury; neuroregeneration; cytokines; inflammation; trauma spinal cord injury; neuroregeneration; cytokines; inflammation; trauma
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Moghaddam, A.; Child, C.; Bruckner, T.; Gerner, H.J.; Daniel, V.; Biglari, B. Posttraumatic Inflammation as a Key to Neuroregeneration after Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 7900-7916.

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