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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(1), 597-627;

Accelerating in Situ Endothelialisation of Cardiovascular Bypass Grafts

Centre for Nanotechnology & Regenerative Medicine, Research Department of Nanotechnology, UCL Division of Surgery & Interventional Science, University College London (UCL), London NW3 2QG, UK
UCL Medical School, University College London (UCL), London WC1E 6DE, UK
Biomaterials & Advanced Drug Delivery Laboratory, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
University Department of Surgery, Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust Hospital, London NW3 2QG, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kevin D. Belfield
Received: 28 September 2014 / Accepted: 19 December 2014 / Published: 29 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Artificial Organs)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2017 KB, uploaded 29 December 2014]   |  


The patency of synthetic cardiovascular grafts in the long run is synonymous with their ability to inhibit the processes of intimal hyperplasia, thrombosis and calcification. In the human body, the endothelium of blood vessels exhibits characteristics that inhibit such processes. As such it is not surprising that research in tissue engineering is directed towards replicating the functionality of the natural endothelium in cardiovascular grafts. This can be done either by seeding the endothelium within the lumen of the grafts prior to implantation or by designing the graft such that in situ endothelialisation takes place after implantation. Due to certain difficulties identified with in vitro endothelialisation, in situ endothelialisation, which will be the focus of this article, has garnered interest in the last years. To promote in situ endothelialisation, the following aspects can be taken into account: (1) Endothelial progenital cell mobilization, adhesion and proliferation; (2) Regulating differentiation of progenitor cells to mature endothelium; (3) Preventing thrombogenesis and inflammation during endothelialisation. This article aims to review and compile recent developments to promote the in situ endothelialisation of cardiovascular grafts and subsequently improve their patency, which can also have widespread implications in the field of tissue engineering. View Full-Text
Keywords: endothelialization; endothelial progenitor cells; bioengineered stents; nanotechnology; cardiology endothelialization; endothelial progenitor cells; bioengineered stents; nanotechnology; cardiology

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Goh, E.T.; Wong, E.; Farhatnia, Y.; Tan, A.; Seifalian, A.M. Accelerating in Situ Endothelialisation of Cardiovascular Bypass Grafts. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 597-627.

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