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Article

Analysis of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Abilities of Extracts from Germinating Vitis californica Seeds Submitted to Cold Stress Conditions and Recovery after the Stress

1
Department of Biochemistry, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego Street 1A, 10-957 Olsztyn, Poland
2
Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima Street 10, 10-748 Olsztyn, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(9), 16211-16225; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms150916211
Received: 30 July 2014 / Revised: 25 August 2014 / Accepted: 5 September 2014 / Published: 12 September 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Phenolics and Polyphenols)
The material for this study consisted of stratified seeds of Vitis californica submitted to germination under optimum conditions (+25 °C) or under chill stress (+10 °C), also followed by recovery. It has been determined that the germinating seeds contain considerable amounts of tannins, catechins as well as phenolic acids such as gallic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids. Gallic acid appeared in the highest amount in the germinating seeds (from 42.40–204.00 µg/g of fresh weight (FW)), followed by caffeic acid (from 6.62–20.13 µg/g FW), p-coumaric acid (from 2.59–5.41 µg/g FW), and ferulic acid (from 0.56–0.92 µg/g FW). The phenolic acids occurred mostly in the ester form. Under chill stress, the germinating seeds were determined to contain an elevated total amount of phenolics, as well as raised levels of condensed tannins, catechins, gallic acid, and gafeic acid. The levels of p-coumoric and ferulic acids were found to have decreased. In extracts isolated from a sample exposed to low temperature, increased antioxidant activity and reduction potential were also demonstrated. Tissue of the germinating seeds which underwent post-stress recovery was found to have less total phenolics. View Full-Text
Keywords: grape seeds; germination; chill stress; phenolic compounds; antioxidant activity grape seeds; germination; chill stress; phenolic compounds; antioxidant activity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Weidner, S.; Chrzanowski, S.; Karamać, M.; Król, A.; Badowiec, A.; Mostek, A.; Amarowicz, R. Analysis of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Abilities of Extracts from Germinating Vitis californica Seeds Submitted to Cold Stress Conditions and Recovery after the Stress. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 16211-16225. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms150916211

AMA Style

Weidner S, Chrzanowski S, Karamać M, Król A, Badowiec A, Mostek A, Amarowicz R. Analysis of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Abilities of Extracts from Germinating Vitis californica Seeds Submitted to Cold Stress Conditions and Recovery after the Stress. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014; 15(9):16211-16225. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms150916211

Chicago/Turabian Style

Weidner, Stanisław; Chrzanowski, Sebastian; Karamać, Magdalena; Król, Angelika; Badowiec, Anna; Mostek, Agnieszka; Amarowicz, Ryszard. 2014. "Analysis of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Abilities of Extracts from Germinating Vitis californica Seeds Submitted to Cold Stress Conditions and Recovery after the Stress" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, no. 9: 16211-16225. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms150916211

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