Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
The Promise of Novel Molecular Markers in Bladder Cancer
Previous Article in Journal
Characterization and Study of Transgenic Cultivars by Capillary and Microchip Electrophoresis
Previous Article in Special Issue
Serum Calreticulin Is a Negative Biomarker in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 23878-23896;

Emerging Biomarkers in Heart Failure and Cardiac Cachexia

Clinical Hospital Zvezdara, Cardiology Department, Dimitrija Tucovica 161, Belgrade 11000, Serbia
National Institute of Public Health, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia
School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade 11000, Serbia
Department of Cardiology, General Hospital Celje, Oblakova 5, Celje 3000, Slovenia
Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 November 2014 / Revised: 11 December 2014 / Accepted: 11 December 2014 / Published: 22 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Classes of Biomarkers for Molecular Diagnostics)
Full-Text   |   PDF [748 KB, uploaded 22 December 2014]   |  


Biomarkers are objective tools with an important role for diagnosis, prognosis and therapy optimization in patients with heart failure (HF). To date, natriuretic peptides are closest to optimal biomarker standards for clinical implications in HF. Therefore, the efforts to identify and test new biomarkers in HF are reasonable and justified. Along the natural history of HF, cardiac cachexia may develop, and once at this stage, patient performance and prognosis is particularly poor. For these reasons, numerous biomarkers reflecting hormonal, inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways have been investigated, but only a few convey relevant information. The complex pathophysiology of HF appears far too complex to be embraced by a single biomarker; thus, a combined approach appears reasonable. With these considerations, we have reviewed the recent developments in the field to highlight key candidates with diagnostic, prognostic and therapy optimization properties, either alone or in combination. View Full-Text
Keywords: heart failure; cardiac cachexia; emerging biomarkers heart failure; cardiac cachexia; emerging biomarkers

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Loncar, G.; Omersa, D.; Cvetinovic, N.; Arandjelovic, A.; Lainscak, M. Emerging Biomarkers in Heart Failure and Cardiac Cachexia. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 23878-23896.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top