Next Article in Journal
Intravitreal Injection of Ranibizumab and CTGF shRNA Improves Retinal Gene Expression and Microvessel Ultrastructure in a Rodent Model of Diabetes
Next Article in Special Issue
Cell-Based in Vitro Blood–Brain Barrier Model Can Rapidly Evaluate Nanoparticles’ Brain Permeability in Association with Particle Size and Surface Modification
Previous Article in Journal
Genetic Variants of GPER/GPR30, a Novel Estrogen-Related G Protein Receptor, Are Associated with Human Seminoma
Previous Article in Special Issue
Temperature-Responsive Poly(ε-caprolactone) Cell Culture Platform with Dynamically Tunable Nano-Roughness and Elasticity for Control of Myoblast Morphology
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(1), 1590-1605;

Magnetic Nanoparticles as Intraocular Drug Delivery System to Target Retinal Pigmented Epithelium (RPE)

Institute of Life Science, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Piazza Martiri della Libertà 33, Pisa 56127, Italy
Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon & Condensed Matter Physics Department, Universidad de Zaragoza, Mariano Esquillor edif. I+D, Zaragoza 50018, Spain
Department of Biology, Università di Pisa, S.S. 12 Abetone e Brennero 4, Pisa 56127, Italy
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 December 2013 / Revised: 3 January 2014 / Accepted: 6 January 2014 / Published: 22 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interaction between Nano-Structure Materials and Cells)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1066 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]   |  


One of the most challenging efforts in drug delivery is the targeting of the eye. The eye structure and barriers render this organ poorly permeable to drugs. Quite recently the entrance of nanoscience in ocular drug delivery has improved the penetration and half-life of drugs, especially in the anterior eye chamber, while targeting the posterior chamber is still an open issue. The retina and the retinal pigment epithelium/choroid tissues, located in the posterior eye chamber, are responsible for the majority of blindness both in childhood and adulthood. In the present study, we used magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as a nanotool for ocular drug delivery that is capable of specific localization in the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) layer. We demonstrate that, following intraocular injection in Xenopus embryos, MNPs localize specifically in RPE where they are retained for several days. The specificity of the localization did not depend on particle size and surface properties of the MNPs used in this work. Moreover, through similar experiments in zebrafish, we demonstrated that the targeting of RPE by the nanoparticles is not specific for the Xenopus species. View Full-Text
Keywords: magnetic nanoparticle (MNP); intraocular delivery; retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE); Xenopus laevis magnetic nanoparticle (MNP); intraocular delivery; retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE); Xenopus laevis

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Giannaccini, M.; Giannini, M.; Calatayud, M.P.; Goya, G.F.; Cuschieri, A.; Dente, L.; Raffa, V. Magnetic Nanoparticles as Intraocular Drug Delivery System to Target Retinal Pigmented Epithelium (RPE). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 1590-1605.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top