Next Article in Journal
Anticancer Effects of Bufalin on Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells: Roles of Apoptosis and Autophagy
Next Article in Special Issue
Effects of Heme Oxygenase-1 Upregulation on Blood Pressure and Cardiac Function in an Animal Model of Hypertensive Myocardial Infarction
Previous Article in Journal
Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Drug-Conjugated Silicon Quantum Dots: Their Cytotoxicity and Biological Effect
Previous Article in Special Issue
From Protein Engineering to Immobilization: Promising Strategies for the Upgrade of Industrial Enzymes
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Potential Applications of Carbohydrases Immobilization in the Food Industry

Laboratory of Food Biochemistry, Department of Food Science, College of Food Engineering, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Monteiro Lobato Street, 80, 13083-862, P.O. Box 6121, Campinas, SP, Brazil
Department of Bioengineering, Higher Technical Institute (IST), Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal
Laboratory of Multidisciplinary Research, University São Francisco, São Francisco de Assis Av, 218, 12916-900, Bragança Paulista, SP, Brazil
Chemistry Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(1), 1335-1369;
Received: 30 October 2012 / Revised: 17 December 2012 / Accepted: 18 December 2012 / Published: 11 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzyme Optimization and Immobilization)
PDF [328 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]


Carbohydrases find a wide application in industrial processes and products, mainly in the food industry. With these enzymes, it is possible to obtain different types of sugar syrups (viz. glucose, fructose and inverted sugar syrups), prebiotics (viz. galactooligossacharides and fructooligossacharides) and isomaltulose, which is an interesting sweetener substitute for sucrose to improve the sensory properties of juices and wines and to reduce lactose in milk. The most important carbohydrases to accomplish these goals are of microbial origin and include amylases (α-amylases and glucoamylases), invertases, inulinases, galactosidases, glucosidases, fructosyltransferases, pectinases and glucosyltransferases. Yet, for all these processes to be cost-effective for industrial application, a very efficient, simple and cheap immobilization technique is required. Immobilization techniques can involve adsorption, entrapment or covalent bonding of the enzyme into an insoluble support, or carrier-free methods, usually based on the formation of cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs). They include a broad variety of supports, such as magnetic materials, gums, gels, synthetic polymers and ionic resins. All these techniques present advantages and disadvantages and several parameters must be considered. In this work, the most recent and important studies on the immobilization of carbohydrases with potential application in the food industry are reviewed. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbohydrases immobilization; amylases; invertases; inulinases; galactosidases; glucosidases; fructosyltransferases; pectinases; glucosyltransferases carbohydrases immobilization; amylases; invertases; inulinases; galactosidases; glucosidases; fructosyltransferases; pectinases; glucosyltransferases
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Contesini, F.J.; De Alencar Figueira, J.; Kawaguti, H.Y.; De Barros Fernandes, P.C.; De Oliveira Carvalho, P.; Da Graça Nascimento, M.; Sato, H.H. Potential Applications of Carbohydrases Immobilization in the Food Industry. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 1335-1369.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top