Next Article in Journal
Functioning Nanomachines Seen in Real-Time in Living Bacteria Using Single-Molecule and Super-Resolution Fluorescence Imaging
Next Article in Special Issue
Identification and Categorization of Liver Toxicity Markers Induced by a Related Pair of Drugs
Previous Article in Journal
Enhancement of Salinity Tolerance during Rice Seed Germination by Presoaking with Hemoglobin
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(4), 2502-2517;

Global Transcriptomic Profiling Using Small Volumes of Whole Blood: A Cost-Effective Method for Translational Genomic Biomarker Identification in Small Animals

Global Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Abbott Laboratories, 100 Abbott Park Road, Abbott Park, Il 60064, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 March 2011 / Revised: 28 March 2011 / Accepted: 1 April 2011 / Published: 13 April 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicogenomics)
Full-Text   |   PDF [291 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]


Blood is an ideal tissue for the identification of novel genomic biomarkers for toxicity or efficacy. However, using blood for transcriptomic profiling presents significant technical challenges due to the transcriptomic changes induced by ex vivo handling and the interference of highly abundant globin mRNA. Most whole blood RNA stabilization and isolation methods also require significant volumes of blood, limiting their effective use in small animal species, such as rodents. To overcome these challenges, a QIAzol-based RNA stabilization and isolation method (QSI) was developed to isolate sufficient amounts of high quality total RNA from 25 to 500 μL of rat whole blood. The method was compared to the standard PAXgene Blood RNA System using blood collected from rats exposed to saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The QSI method yielded an average of 54 ng total RNA per μL of rat whole blood with an average RNA Integrity Number (RIN) of 9, a performance comparable with the standard PAXgene method. Total RNA samples were further processed using the NuGEN Ovation Whole Blood Solution system and cDNA was hybridized to Affymetrix Rat Genome 230 2.0 Arrays. The microarray QC parameters using RNA isolated with the QSI method were within the acceptable range for microarray analysis. The transcriptomic profiles were highly correlated with those using RNA isolated with the PAXgene method and were consistent with expected LPS-induced inflammatory responses. The present study demonstrated that the QSI method coupled with NuGEN Ovation Whole Blood Solution system is cost-effective and particularly suitable for transcriptomic profiling of minimal volumes of whole blood, typical of those obtained with small animal species. View Full-Text
Keywords: blood; biomarker; inflammation; transcriptomics blood; biomarker; inflammation; transcriptomics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Fricano, M.M.; Ditewig, A.C.; Jung, P.M.; Liguori, M.J.; Blomme, E.A.G.; Yang, Y. Global Transcriptomic Profiling Using Small Volumes of Whole Blood: A Cost-Effective Method for Translational Genomic Biomarker Identification in Small Animals. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 2502-2517.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top