Next Article in Journal
Determination of the Thermodegradation of deoxyArbutin in Aqueous Solution by High Performance Liquid Chromatography
Next Article in Special Issue
Carbonic Anhydrase I Is Recognized by an SOD1 Antibody upon Biotinylation of Human Spinal Cord Extracts
Previous Article in Journal
The Effect of Exercise on the Skeletal Muscle Phospholipidome of Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet
Previous Article in Special Issue
Aberrant Crypt Foci: The Case for Inclusion as a Biomarker for Colon Cancer
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11(10), 3965-3976;

Distribution of Endogenous Farnesyl Pyrophosphate and Four Species of Lysophosphatidic Acid in Rodent Brain

The Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
The Gill Center for Biomolecular Science, Bloomington IN, 47405, USA
The Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender and Reproduction, Bloomington IN 47405, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: 24 August 2010 / Revised: 12 October 2010 / Accepted: 13 October 2010 / Published: 15 October 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers)
PDF [247 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]


Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is the umbrella term for lipid signaling molecules that share structural homology and activate the family of LPA receptors. Farnesyl Pyrophosphate (FPP) is commonly known as an intermediate in the synthesis of steroid hormones; however, its function as a signaling lipid is beginning to be explored. FPP was recently shown to an activator of the G-protein coupled receptor 92 (also known as LPA5) of the calcium channel TRPV3. The LPA receptors (including GPR92) are associated with the signal transduction of noxious stimuli, however, very little is known about the distribution of their signaling ligands (LPAs and FPP) in the brain. Here, using HPLC/MS/MS, we developed extraction and analytical methods for measuring levels of FPP and 4 species of LPA (palmitoyl, stearoyl, oleoyl and arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol-3 phosphate) in rodent brain. Relative distributions of each of the five compounds was significantly different across the brain suggesting divergent functionality for each as signaling molecules based on where and how much of each is being produced. Brainstem, midbrain, and thalamus contained the highest levels measured for each compound, though none in the same ratios while relatively small amounts were produced in cortex and cerebellum. These data provide a framework for investigations into functional relationships of these lipid ligands in specific brain areas, many of which are associated with the perception of pain. View Full-Text
Keywords: LPA; FPP; GPR92; TRPV3, LC/MS/MS; pain LPA; FPP; GPR92; TRPV3, LC/MS/MS; pain
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, S.H.; Raboune, S.; Walker, J.M.; Bradshaw, H.B. Distribution of Endogenous Farnesyl Pyrophosphate and Four Species of Lysophosphatidic Acid in Rodent Brain. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11, 3965-3976.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top