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Review

Involvement of NRF2 in Breast Cancer and Possible Therapeutical Role of Polyphenols and Melatonin

by 1,†, 2, 3, 1,* and 2
1
Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ege University, 35040 Izmir, Turkey
2
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology “Vittorio Erspamer”, Sapienza University of Rome, P. le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
3
Laboratory for Machine Learning and Knowledge Representation, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Izmir Biomedicine and Genome Center, 35340 Izmir, Turkey.
Academic Editor: Roberto Fabiani
Molecules 2021, 26(7), 1853; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26071853
Received: 4 March 2021 / Revised: 21 March 2021 / Accepted: 22 March 2021 / Published: 25 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redox Active Molecules in Cancer Treatments)
Oxidative stress is defined as a disturbance in the prooxidant/antioxidant balance in favor of the former and a loss of control over redox signaling processes, leading to potential biomolecular damage. It is involved in the etiology of many diseases, varying from diabetes to neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) is a transcription factor and reported as one of the most important oxidative stress regulators. Due to its regulatory role in the expression of numerous cytoprotective genes involved in the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory responses, the modulation of NRF2 seems to be a promising approach in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Breast cancer is the prevalent type of tumor in women and is the leading cause of death among female cancers. Oxidative stress-related mechanisms are known to be involved in breast cancer, and therefore, NRF2 is considered to be beneficial in its prevention. However, its overactivation may lead to a negative clinical impact on breast cancer therapy by causing chemoresistance. Some known “oxidative stress modulators”, such as melatonin and polyphenols, are suggested to play an important role in the prevention and treatment of cancer, where the activation of NRF2 is reported as a possible underlying mechanism. In the present review, the potential involvement of oxidative stress and NRF2 in breast cancer will be reviewed, and the role of the NRF2 modulators—namely, polyphenols and melatonin—in the treatment of breast cancer will be discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast cancer; NRF2; oxidative stress; polyphenols; melatonin breast cancer; NRF2; oxidative stress; polyphenols; melatonin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tascioglu Aliyev, A.; Panieri, E.; Stepanić, V.; Gurer-Orhan, H.; Saso, L. Involvement of NRF2 in Breast Cancer and Possible Therapeutical Role of Polyphenols and Melatonin. Molecules 2021, 26, 1853. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26071853

AMA Style

Tascioglu Aliyev A, Panieri E, Stepanić V, Gurer-Orhan H, Saso L. Involvement of NRF2 in Breast Cancer and Possible Therapeutical Role of Polyphenols and Melatonin. Molecules. 2021; 26(7):1853. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26071853

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tascioglu Aliyev, Alev, Emiliano Panieri, Višnja Stepanić, Hande Gurer-Orhan, and Luciano Saso. 2021. "Involvement of NRF2 in Breast Cancer and Possible Therapeutical Role of Polyphenols and Melatonin" Molecules 26, no. 7: 1853. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26071853

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