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Molecules 2019, 24(3), 638; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24030638

Experimental Evaluation of the Thermal Polarization in Direct Contact Membrane Distillation Using Electrospun Nanofiber Membranes Doped With Molecular Probes

1
Institute on Membrane Technology (ITM-CNR), via P. Bucci 17/C, 87036 Rende (CS), Italy
2
Institute of Nanoscience of Aragon (INA) and Department of Chemical, Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Zaragoza, C/Mariano Esquillor, s/n, I+D+i Building, 50018 Zaragoza, Spain
3
LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal
4
Istituto di Nanotecnologia (CNR - NANOTEC), Via P. Bucci 31c, 87036 Rende (Cs), Italy
5
Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, CNR-IPCF, Viale F. Stagno D’Alcontres 37, 98158 Messina, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 December 2018 / Revised: 30 January 2019 / Accepted: 1 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Membrane Preparation and Applications)
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Abstract

Membrane distillation (MD) has recently gained considerable attention as a valid process for the production of fresh-water due to its ability to exploit low grade waste heat for operation and to ensure a nearly feed concentration-independent production of high-purity distillate. Limitations have been related to polarization phenomena negatively affecting the thermal efficiency of the process and, as a consequence, its productivity. Several theoretical models have been developed to predict the impact of the operating conditions of the process on the thermal polarization, but there is a lack of experimental validation. In this study, electrospun nanofiber membranes (ENMs) made of Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and doped with (1, 10-phenanthroline) ruthenium (II) Ru(phen)3 were tested at different operating conditions (i.e., temperature and velocity of the feed) in direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD). The temperature sensitive luminophore, Ru(phen)3, allowed the on-line and non-invasive mapping of the temperature at the membrane surface during the process and the experimental evaluation of the effect of the temperature and velocity of the feed on the thermal polarization. View Full-Text
Keywords: membrane distillation; thermal polarization; electrospinning; molecular probes membrane distillation; thermal polarization; electrospinning; molecular probes
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Santoro, S.; Vidorreta, I.; Coelhoso, I.; Lima, J.C.; Desiderio, G.; Lombardo, G.; Drioli, E.; Mallada, R.; Crespo, J.; Criscuoli, A.; Figoli, A. Experimental Evaluation of the Thermal Polarization in Direct Contact Membrane Distillation Using Electrospun Nanofiber Membranes Doped With Molecular Probes. Molecules 2019, 24, 638.

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