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Phytochemical Analysis and Potential Biological Activities of Essential Oil from Rice Leaf

1
Graduate school for International Development and Cooperation, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 739-8529, Japan
2
Agricultural Genetics Institute, Hanoi City 123000, Vietnam
3
Center for Expert, Vietnam National University of Agriculture, Hanoi 131000, Vietnam
4
Department of Biotechnology, NTT Institute of Hi-Technology, Nguyen-Tat-Thanh University, 298A-300A Nguyen-Tat-Thanh Street, 13 Ward, District 04, Ho Chi Minh City 72820, Vietnam
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2019, 24(3), 546; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24030546
Received: 4 January 2019 / Revised: 23 January 2019 / Accepted: 1 February 2019 / Published: 2 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Product Isolation, Identification and Biological Activity)
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Abstract

Although many investigations on phytochemicals in rice plant parts and root exudates have been conducted, information on the chemical profile of essential oil (EO) and potent biological activities has been limited. In this study, chemical compositions of rice leaf EO and in vitro biological activities were investigated. From 1.5 kg of fresh rice leaves, an amount of 20 mg EO was obtained by distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), electrospray ionization (ESI), and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) to reveal the presence of twelve volatile constituents, of which methyl ricinoleate (27.86%) was the principal compound, followed by palmitic acid (17.34%), and linolenic acid (11.16%), while 2-pentadecanone was the least (2.13%). Two phytoalexin momilactones A and B were first time identified in EO using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-MS) (9.80 and 4.93 ng/g fresh weight, respectively), which accounted for 7.35% and 3.70% of the EO, respectively. The assays of DPPH (IC50 = 73.1 µg/mL), ABTS (IC50 = 198.3 µg/mL), FRAP (IC50 = 700.8 µg/mL) and β-carotene oxidation (LPI = 79%) revealed that EO possessed an excellent antioxidant activity. The xanthine oxidase assay indicated that the anti-hyperuricemia potential was in a moderate level (IC50 = 526 µg/mL) as compared with the standard allopurinol. The EO exerted potent inhibition on growth of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa, and two noxious weeds Echinochloa crus-galli, and Bidens pilosa, but in contrast, the growth of rice seedlings was promoted. Among the examined plants, the growth of the E. crus-galli root was the most inhibited, proposing that constituents found in EO may have potential for the control of the problematic paddy weed E. crus-galli. It was found that the EO of rice leaves contained rich phytochemicals, which were potent in antioxidants and gout treatment, as well as weed management. Findings of this study highlighted the potential value of rice leaves, which may provide extra benefits for rice farmers. View Full-Text
Keywords: Momilactone A; momilactone B; antioxidant activity; allelopathic activity; anti-hyperuricemia; rice leaf; essential; UPLC/ESI-MS Momilactone A; momilactone B; antioxidant activity; allelopathic activity; anti-hyperuricemia; rice leaf; essential; UPLC/ESI-MS
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Minh, T.N.; Xuan, T.D.; Van, T.M.; Andriana, Y.; Viet, T.D.; Khanh, T.D.; Tran, H.-D. Phytochemical Analysis and Potential Biological Activities of Essential Oil from Rice Leaf. Molecules 2019, 24, 546.

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