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Open AccessArticle

Molecular Mechanisms of Leonurus Cardiaca L. Extract Activity in Prevention of Staphylococcal Endocarditis—Study on in Vitro and ex Vivo Models

1
Department of Immunology and Infectious Biology, Institute of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Immunology, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Lodz, Poland
2
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Lwowska 1, 87-100 Torun, Poland
3
Department of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, Institute of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Immunology, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Lodz, Poland
4
Institute of Technical Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Lodz University of Technology, Stefanowskiego 4/10, 90-924 Lodz, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vincenzo De Feo
Molecules 2019, 24(18), 3318; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24183318
Received: 22 August 2019 / Revised: 9 September 2019 / Accepted: 10 September 2019 / Published: 12 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
Better understanding the mechanisms of Leonurus cardiaca L. extract (LCE) activity is necessary to prepare recommendations for the use of LCE-based herbal products for preventive/supportive purposes in case of infective endocarditis (IE) and other staphylococcal invasive infections. The aim of the study was to analyze molecular mechanisms of LCE effect on Staphylococcus aureus and blood platelets in the context of their interactions playing a pivotal role in such disorders. Using atomic force microscopy, we demonstrated that adhesion forces of S. aureus were markedly reduced after exposure to LCE at subinhibitory concentrations. The effect resulted from the impact of LCE on S. aureus cell morphology and the composition of phospholipids and fatty acids in bacterial membranes (assessed by HPLC), which modulated their stabilization, hydrophobicity, and charge. Moreover, using FACS we showed also that LCE significantly reduced GP IIb/IIIa expression on blood platelets, thus the disruption of platelet-fibrinogen interactions seems to explain antiplatelet effect of LCE. The obtained results prove the usefulness of LCE in the prevention of S. aureus adhesion, platelet activation, and vegetations development, however, also pointed out the necessity of excluding the cationic antibiotics from the treatment of S. aureus-associated IE and other invasive diseases, when motherwort herb is used simultaneously as an addition to the daily diet. View Full-Text
Keywords: Leonurus cardiaca L.; infective endocarditis; blood platelets; Staphylococcus aureus; microbial adhesion; cell–pathogen interaction Leonurus cardiaca L.; infective endocarditis; blood platelets; Staphylococcus aureus; microbial adhesion; cell–pathogen interaction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sadowska, B.; Laskowski, D.; Bernat, P.; Micota, B.; Więckowska-Szakiel, M.; Podsędek, A.; Różalska, B. Molecular Mechanisms of Leonurus Cardiaca L. Extract Activity in Prevention of Staphylococcal Endocarditis—Study on in Vitro and ex Vivo Models. Molecules 2019, 24, 3318.

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