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Improved Carotenoid Processing with Sustainable Solvents Utilizing Z-Isomerization-Induced Alteration in Physicochemical Properties: A Review and Future Directions

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Faculty of Science & Technology, Meijo University, Shiogamaguchi, Tempaku-ku, Nagoya 468-8502, Japan
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Department of Materials Process Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603, Japan
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Technical Center, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603, Japan
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Innovation Division, Kagome Company, Limited, Nishitomiyama, Nasushiobara 329-2762, Japan
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Institutes of Innovation for Future Society, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Monica Nardi
Molecules 2019, 24(11), 2149; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24112149
Received: 8 April 2019 / Revised: 3 June 2019 / Accepted: 5 June 2019 / Published: 7 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green and Sustainable Solvents II)
Carotenoids—natural fat-soluble pigments—have attracted considerable attention because of their potential to prevent of various diseases, such as cancer and arteriosclerosis, and their strong antioxidant capacity. They have many geometric isomers due to the presence of numerous conjugated double bonds in the molecule. However, in plants, most carotenoids are present in the all-E-configuration. (all-E)-Carotenoids are characterized by high crystallinity as well as low solubility in safe and sustainable solvents, such as ethanol and supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2). Thus, these properties result in the decreased efficiency of carotenoid processing, such as extraction and emulsification, using such sustainable solvents. On the other hand, Z-isomerization of carotenoids induces alteration in physicochemical properties, i.e., the solubility of carotenoids dramatically improves and they change from a “crystalline state” to an “oily (amorphous) state”. For example, the solubility in ethanol of lycopene Z-isomers is more than 4000 times higher than the all-E-isomer. Recently, improvement of carotenoid processing efficiency utilizing these changes has attracted attention. Namely, it is possible to markedly improve carotenoid processing using safe and sustainable solvents, which had previously been difficult to put into practical use due to the low efficiency. The objective of this paper is to review the effect of Z-isomerization on the physicochemical properties of carotenoids and its application to carotenoid processing, such as extraction, micronization, and emulsification, using sustainable solvents. Moreover, aspects of Z-isomerization methods for carotenoids and functional difference, such as bioavailability and antioxidant capacity, between isomers are also included in this review. View Full-Text
Keywords: lycopene; β-carotene; astaxanthin; E/Z-isomerization; solubility; crystallinity; extraction; emulsification; micronization; supercritical CO2 lycopene; β-carotene; astaxanthin; E/Z-isomerization; solubility; crystallinity; extraction; emulsification; micronization; supercritical CO2
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MDPI and ACS Style

Honda, M.; Kageyama, H.; Hibino, T.; Zhang, Y.; Diono, W.; Kanda, H.; Yamaguchi, R.; Takemura, R.; Fukaya, T.; Goto, M. Improved Carotenoid Processing with Sustainable Solvents Utilizing Z-Isomerization-Induced Alteration in Physicochemical Properties: A Review and Future Directions. Molecules 2019, 24, 2149.

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