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Open AccessArticle

Effects of Ultrasound Assisted Extraction in Conjugation with Aid of Actinidin on the Molecular and Physicochemical Properties of Bovine Hide Gelatin

1
Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
2
ICAR-Central Institute of Post-Harvest Engineering and Technology, Ludhiana, Punjab 141004, India
3
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
4
Halal Products Research Institute, Putra Infoport, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
5
Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
6
Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam 40450, Selangor, Malaysia
7
Laboratory of Sustainable Animal Production and Biodiversity, Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Food Security, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
8
Department of Poultry Production, University of Khartoum, Khartoum 13314, Sudan
9
Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture, University of Southern Mindanao, Kabacan 9407, North Cotabato, Philippines
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2018, 23(4), 730; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23040730
Received: 25 December 2017 / Revised: 10 February 2018 / Accepted: 12 February 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
Actinidin was used to pretreat the bovine hide and ultrasonic wave (53 kHz and 500 W) was used for the time durations of 2, 4 and 6 h at 60 °C to extract gelatin samples (UA2, UA4 and UA6, respectively). Control (UAC) gelatin was extracted using ultrasound for 6 h at 60 °C without enzyme pretreatment. There was significant (p < 0.05) increase in gelatin yield as the time duration of ultrasound treatment increased with UA6 giving the highest yield of 19.65%. Gel strength and viscosity of UAC and UA6 extracted gelatin samples were 627.53 and 502.16 g and 16.33 and 15.60 mPa.s, respectively. Longer duration of ultrasound treatment increased amino acids content of the extracted gelatin and UAC exhibited the highest content of amino acids. Progressive degradation of polypeptide chains was observed in the protein pattern of the extracted gelatin as the time duration of ultrasound extraction increased. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy depicted loss of molecular order and degradation in UA6. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed protein aggregation and network formation in the gelatin samples with increasing time of ultrasound treatment. The study indicated that ultrasound assisted gelatin extraction using actinidin exhibited high yield with good quality gelatin. View Full-Text
Keywords: ultrasound assisted extraction; gelatin; actinidin; bovine hide; physicochemical properties; gel strength ultrasound assisted extraction; gelatin; actinidin; bovine hide; physicochemical properties; gel strength
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ahmad, T.; Ismail, A.; Ahmad, S.A.; Khalil, K.A.; Leo, T.K.; Awad, E.A.; Imlan, J.C.; Sazili, A.Q. Effects of Ultrasound Assisted Extraction in Conjugation with Aid of Actinidin on the Molecular and Physicochemical Properties of Bovine Hide Gelatin. Molecules 2018, 23, 730. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23040730

AMA Style

Ahmad T, Ismail A, Ahmad SA, Khalil KA, Leo TK, Awad EA, Imlan JC, Sazili AQ. Effects of Ultrasound Assisted Extraction in Conjugation with Aid of Actinidin on the Molecular and Physicochemical Properties of Bovine Hide Gelatin. Molecules. 2018; 23(4):730. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23040730

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ahmad, Tanbir; Ismail, Amin; Ahmad, Siti A.; Khalil, Khalilah A.; Leo, Teik K.; Awad, Elmutaz A.; Imlan, Jurhamid C.; Sazili, Awis Q. 2018. "Effects of Ultrasound Assisted Extraction in Conjugation with Aid of Actinidin on the Molecular and Physicochemical Properties of Bovine Hide Gelatin" Molecules 23, no. 4: 730. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23040730

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