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Molecules 2018, 23(11), 2920; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23112920

Mitigation Effects of a Novel Herbal Medicine, Hepad, on Neuroinflammation, Neuroapoptosis, and Neuro-Oxidation

1
Department of Food Science and Technology, Seoul National University of Science & Technology, Seoul 01811, Korea
2
Division of Food Bioscience, Konkuk University, Chungju 27478, Korea
3
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul 04170, Korea
4
Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Daejeon University, Daejeon 34520, Korea
5
Department of Pathology, College of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon University, Daejeon 34520, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 September 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 7 November 2018 / Published: 8 November 2018
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Abstract

Parkinson’s disease (PD), a common adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder with complex pathological mechanisms, is characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons. The present study demonstrated that the herbal medicines Hepad 1 and 2 protected against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in C57BL/6 mice and SH-SY5Y cells. Hepad 1 and 2 remarkably alleviated the enhanced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, macrophage-1, and phosphorylated iκB-α) and apoptotic signals (Bcl-2-associated X protein, caspase-3, and poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase-1). Additionally, Hepad reduced MPTP-induced oxidative damage by increasing the expression of anti-oxidant defense enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase) and downregulating the levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 4. This study also showed that the neuroprotective effects of Hepad include anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and anti-oxidative properties, in addition to activation of the protein kinase B, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathways. Furthermore, oral administration of Hepad 1 and 2 attenuated the death of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive substantia nigra neurons that was induced by 20 mg/kg MPTP. Therefore, our results suggest that Hepad 1 and 2 are useful for treating PD and other disorders associated with neuro-inflammatory, neuro-apoptotic, and neuro-oxidative damage. View Full-Text
Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine; Hepad; Mitigation effect; SH-SY5Y cells; Substantia nigra Parkinson’s disease; 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine; Hepad; Mitigation effect; SH-SY5Y cells; Substantia nigra
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Song, D.H.; Kim, G.-J.; Lee, K.J.; Shin, J.S.; Kim, D.-H.; Park, B.-J.; An, J.H. Mitigation Effects of a Novel Herbal Medicine, Hepad, on Neuroinflammation, Neuroapoptosis, and Neuro-Oxidation. Molecules 2018, 23, 2920.

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