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Molecules 2018, 23(11), 2766; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23112766

Small Molecule Optoacoustic Contrast Agents: An Unexplored Avenue for Enhancing In Vivo Imaging

1
Department of Chemistry, 100 Piedmont Avenue SE, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
2
Center for Diagnostics and Therapeutics, 100 Piedmont Avenue SE, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
3
Department of Cancer Biology, 1 Medical Center Blvd, Wake Forest Comprehensive Cancer Center, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 September 2018 / Revised: 19 October 2018 / Accepted: 22 October 2018 / Published: 25 October 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [9660 KB, uploaded 25 October 2018]   |  

Abstract

Almost every variety of medical imaging technique relies heavily on exogenous contrast agents to generate high-resolution images of biological structures. Organic small molecule contrast agents, in particular, are well suited for biomedical imaging applications due to their favorable biocompatibility and amenability to structural modification. PET/SPECT, MRI, and fluorescence imaging all have a large host of small molecule contrast agents developed for them, and there exists an academic understanding of how these compounds can be developed. Optoacoustic imaging is a relatively newer imaging technique and, as such, lacks well-established small molecule contrast agents; many of the contrast agents used are the same ones which have found use in fluorescence imaging applications. Many commonly-used fluorescent dyes have found successful application in optoacoustic imaging, but others generate no detectable signal. Moreover, the structural features that either enable a molecule to generate a detectable optoacoustic signal or prevent it from doing so are poorly understood, so design of new contrast agents lacks direction. This review aims to compile the small molecule optoacoustic contrast agents that have been successfully employed in the literature to bridge the information gap between molecular design and optoacoustic signal generation. The information contained within will help to provide direction for the future synthesis of optoacoustic contrast agents. View Full-Text
Keywords: optoacoustic; near-infrared; small molecule; contrast agents optoacoustic; near-infrared; small molecule; contrast agents
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Laramie, M.D.; Smith, M.K.; Marmarchi, F.; McNally, L.R.; Henary, M. Small Molecule Optoacoustic Contrast Agents: An Unexplored Avenue for Enhancing In Vivo Imaging. Molecules 2018, 23, 2766.

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