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Flexible Antibacterial Coatings
Open AccessArticle

In Vitro Assessment of Early Bacterial Activity on Micro/Nanostructured Ti6Al4V Surfaces

1
Instituto de Ingeniería, Departamento de Corrosión y Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Blvd. Benito Juárez y Calle de la Normal s/n, Mexicali C.P., 21040 Baja California, Mexico
2
Facultad de Odontología Mexicali, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Av. Zotoluca y Chinampas, s/n, Mexicali C.P., 21280 Baja California, Mexico
3
Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Blvd. Benito Juárez y Calle de la Normal s/n, Mexicali C.P., 21040 Baja California, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally and are considered as co-first authors.
Academic Editors: Krasimir Vasilev, Alex Cavallaro and Peter Zilm
Molecules 2017, 22(5), 832; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22050832
Received: 29 March 2017 / Revised: 13 May 2017 / Accepted: 16 May 2017 / Published: 18 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibacterial Materials and Coatings)
It is imperative to understand and systematically compare the initial interactions between bacteria genre and surface properties. Thus, we fabricated a flat, anodized with 80 nm TiO2 nanotubes (NTs), and a rough Ti6Al4V surface. The materials were characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We cultured in vitro Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) to evaluate the bacterial-surface behavior by FE-SEM and viability calculation. In addition, the initial effects of human osteoblasts were tested on the materials. Gram-negative bacteria showed promoted adherence and viability over the flat and rough surface, while NTs displayed opposite activity with altered morphology. Gram-positive bacteria illustrated similar cellular architecture over the surfaces but with promoted surface adhesion bonds on the flat alloy. Rough surfaces supported S. epidermidis viability, whilst NTs exhibited lower vitality. NTs advocated promoted better osteoblast organization with enhanced vitality. Gram-positive bacteria suggested preferred adhesion capability over flat and carbon-rich surfaces. Gram-negative bacteria were strongly disturbed by NTs but largely stimulated by flat and rough materials. Our work proposed that the chemical profile of the material surface and the bacterial cell wall characteristics might play an important role in the bacteria-surface interactions. View Full-Text
Keywords: bacterial adhesion; nanostructure; titanium implant; Gram-positive; Gram-negative; biomaterial infections; TiO2 nanotubes bacterial adhesion; nanostructure; titanium implant; Gram-positive; Gram-negative; biomaterial infections; TiO2 nanotubes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Valdez-Salas, B.; Beltrán-Partida, E.; Castillo-Uribe, S.; Curiel-Álvarez, M.; Zlatev, R.; Stoytcheva, M.; Montero-Alpírez, G.; Vargas-Osuna, L. In Vitro Assessment of Early Bacterial Activity on Micro/Nanostructured Ti6Al4V Surfaces. Molecules 2017, 22, 832.

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