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Correction published on 23 April 2016, see Molecules 2016, 21(4), 546.

Open AccessReview

Biofuels and Their Co-Products as Livestock Feed: Global Economic and Environmental Implications

Institute of Sectoral Economics and Methodology, Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Debrecen, Debrecen 4032, Hungary
Institute of Business Economics, Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Debrecen, Debrecen 4032, Hungary
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Giancarlo Cravotto and Farid Chemat
Molecules 2016, 21(3), 285;
Received: 23 December 2015 / Revised: 3 February 2016 / Accepted: 24 February 2016 / Published: 29 February 2016
PDF [1515 KB, uploaded 25 April 2016]


This review studies biofuel expansion in terms of competition between conventional and advanced biofuels based on bioenergy potential. Production of advanced biofuels is generally more expensive than current biofuels because products are not yet cost competitive. What is overlooked in the discussion about biofuel is the contribution the industry makes to the global animal feed supply and land use for cultivation of feedstocks. The global ethanol industry produces 44 million metric tonnes of high-quality feed, however, the co-products of biodiesel production have a moderate impact on the feed market contributing to just 8–9 million tonnes of protein meal output a year. By economically displacing traditional feed ingredients co-products from biofuel production are an important and valuable component of the biofuels sector and the global feed market. The return of co-products to the feed market has agricultural land use (and GHG emissions) implications as well. The use of co-products generated from grains and oilseeds can reduce net land use by 11% to 40%. The proportion of global cropland used for biofuels is currently some 2% (30–35 million hectares). By adding co-products substituted for grains and oilseeds the land required for cultivation of feedstocks declines to 1.5% of the global crop area. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioenergy; biofuels; co-products; feed potential; substitution bioenergy; biofuels; co-products; feed potential; substitution

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Popp, J.; Harangi-Rákos, M.; Gabnai, Z.; Balogh, P.; Antal, G.; Bai, A. Biofuels and Their Co-Products as Livestock Feed: Global Economic and Environmental Implications. Molecules 2016, 21, 285.

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