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Isoeugenin, a Novel Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor Isolated from the Rhizomes of Imperata cylindrica

Department of Pharmacology, College of Korean Medicine, Sangji University, Wonju 220-702, Korea
Department of Agro-Industrial Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Lambung Mangkurat University, Indonesia 70712, Indonesia
Department of Forest Science, College of Life Science and Natural Resources, Sangji University, Wonju 220-702, Korea
Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, College of Health Science, Sangji University, Wonju 220-702, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Derek J. McPhee and John A. Beutler
Molecules 2015, 20(12), 21336-21345;
Received: 28 October 2015 / Revised: 20 November 2015 / Accepted: 24 November 2015 / Published: 1 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
PDF [1165 KB, uploaded 1 December 2015]


Phytochemical studies on the constituents of the rhizomes of Imperata cylindrica (Gramineae) were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). We also aimed to search for any biologically active substance capable of inhibiting nitric oxide (NO) formation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophage 264.7 cells, by testing four compounds isolated from this plant. Four compounds, including a new chromone, isoeugenin, along with ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and caffeic acid were isolated and identified by NMR spectroscopy. The structure of isoeugenin was determined as 7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-2-methylchromone by the 2D-NMR technique. Among the four compounds, isoeugenin has the lowest IC50 value on the inhibition of NO production in LPS-activated macrophage RAW264.7 cells (IC50, 9.33 μg/mL). In addition, isoeugenin significantly suppressed the LPS-induced expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and proinflammatory cytokines mRNA levels. Taken together, these results suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of isoeugenin is associated with the down-regulation of iNOS, COX-2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW264.7 cells. Accordingly, our results suggest that the new chromone isoegenin should be considered a potential treatment for inflammatory disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: Imperata cylindrica; isoeugenin; RAW264.7 macrophages; NO; HPLC Imperata cylindrica; isoeugenin; RAW264.7 macrophages; NO; HPLC

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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An, H.-J.; Nugroho, A.; Song, B.-M.; Park, H.-J. Isoeugenin, a Novel Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor Isolated from the Rhizomes of Imperata cylindrica. Molecules 2015, 20, 21336-21345.

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