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Open AccessArticle

Anti-Inflammatory Effect of the Blueberry Anthocyanins Malvidin-3-Glucoside and Malvidin-3-Galactoside in Endothelial Cells

by Wu-Yang Huang 1,†, Ya-Mei Liu 2,†, Jian Wang 1,3, Xing-Na Wang 1 and Chun-Yang Li 1,*
Department of Functional Food and Bio-active compounds, Institute of Farm Product Processing, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing 210014, China
National Technical Research Centre of Veterinary Biological Products, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Science, Nanjing 210014, China
College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Molecules 2014, 19(8), 12827-12841;
Received: 10 July 2014 / Revised: 31 July 2014 / Accepted: 8 August 2014 / Published: 21 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthocyanins)
Blueberry fruits have a wide range of health benefits because of their abundant anthocyanins, which are natural antioxidants. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of blueberry’s two main anthocyanins (malvidin-3-glucoside and malvidin-3-galactoside) on inflammatory response in endothelial cells. These two malvidin glycosides could inhibit tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) induced increases of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) production both in the protein and mRNA levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Mv-3-glc at the concentration of 1 μM could inhibit 35.9% increased MCP-1, 54.4% ICAM-1, and 44.7% VCAM-1 protein in supernatant, as well as 9.88% MCP-1 and 48.6% ICAM-1 mRNA expression (p < 0.05). In addition, they could decrease IκBα degradation (Mv-3-glc, Mv-3-gal, and their mixture at the concentration of 50 μM had the inhibition rate of 84.8%, 75.3%, and 43.2%, respectively, p < 0.01) and block the nuclear translocation of p65, which suggested their anti-inflammation mechanism was mediated by the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. In general malvidin-3-glucoside had better anti-inflammatory effect than malvidin-3-galactoside. These results indicated that blueberry is good resource of anti-inflammatory anthocyanins, which can be promising molecules for the development of nutraceuticals to prevent chronic inflammation in many diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: anthocyanins; anti-inflammatory effect; blueberry; malvidin-3-galactoside; malvidin-3-glucoside anthocyanins; anti-inflammatory effect; blueberry; malvidin-3-galactoside; malvidin-3-glucoside
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Huang, W.-Y.; Liu, Y.-M.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.-N.; Li, C.-Y. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of the Blueberry Anthocyanins Malvidin-3-Glucoside and Malvidin-3-Galactoside in Endothelial Cells. Molecules 2014, 19, 12827-12841.

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