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Open AccessReview

Chemical Methods for Peptide and Protein Production

School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072, Australia
School of Pharmacy, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4072, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2013, 18(4), 4373-4388;
Received: 12 March 2013 / Revised: 28 March 2013 / Accepted: 9 April 2013 / Published: 12 April 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Protein and Peptide Synthesis)
Since the invention of solid phase synthetic methods by Merrifield in 1963, the number of research groups focusing on peptide synthesis has grown exponentially. However, the original step-by-step synthesis had limitations: the purity of the final product decreased with the number of coupling steps. After the development of Boc and Fmoc protecting groups, novel amino acid protecting groups and new techniques were introduced to provide high quality and quantity peptide products. Fragment condensation was a popular method for peptide production in the 1980s, but unfortunately the rate of racemization and reaction difficulties proved less than ideal. Kent and co-workers revolutionized peptide coupling by introducing the chemoselective reaction of unprotected peptides, called native chemical ligation. Subsequently, research has focused on the development of novel ligating techniques including the famous click reaction, ligation of peptide hydrazides, and the recently reported a-ketoacid-hydroxylamine ligations with 5-oxaproline. Several companies have been formed all over the world to prepare high quality Good Manufacturing Practice peptide products on a multi-kilogram scale. This review describes the advances in peptide chemistry including the variety of synthetic peptide methods currently available and the broad application of peptides in medicinal chemistry. View Full-Text
Keywords: peptide; protein; native chemical ligation; thioester; peptide synthesis peptide; protein; native chemical ligation; thioester; peptide synthesis
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Chandrudu, S.; Simerska, P.; Toth, I. Chemical Methods for Peptide and Protein Production. Molecules 2013, 18, 4373-4388.

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