Next Article in Journal
Improvement of Contact Tracing with Citizen’s Distributed Risk Maps
Next Article in Special Issue
A Maximum Entropy Model of Bounded Rational Decision-Making with Prior Beliefs and Market Feedback
Previous Article in Journal
Tomographic Description of a Quantum Wave Packet in an Accelerated Frame
Previous Article in Special Issue
Optimizing Expected Shortfall under an 1 Constraint—An Analytic Approach

Article

# Highway Freight Transportation Diversity of Cities Based on Radiation Models

by 1, 1,2, 1,2,3, 2,4 and 1,3,4,*
1
School of Business, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China
2
Zhicang Technologies, Beijing 100016, China
3
Research Center for Econophysics, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China
4
Department of Mathematics, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Entropy 2021, 23(5), 637; https://doi.org/10.3390/e23050637
Received: 19 April 2021 / Revised: 9 May 2021 / Accepted: 13 May 2021 / Published: 20 May 2021
Using a unique data set containing about 15.06 million truck transportation records in five months, we investigate the highway freight transportation diversity of 338 Chinese cities based on the truck transportation probability ${p}_{ij}$ from one city to another. The transportation probabilities are calculated from the radiation model based on the geographic distance and its cost-based version based on the driving distance as the proxy of cost. For each model, we consider both the population and the gross domestic product (GDP), and find quantitatively very similar results. We find that the transportation probabilities have nice power-law tails with the tail exponents close to 0.5 for all the models. The two transportation probabilities in each model fall around the diagonal ${p}_{ij}={p}_{ji}$ but are often not the same. In addition, the corresponding transportation probabilities calculated from the raw radiation model and the cost-based radiation model also fluctuate around the diagonal ${p}_{ij}^{\mathrm{geo}}={p}_{ij}^{\mathrm{cost}}$. We calculate four sets of highway truck transportation diversity according to the four sets of transportation probabilities that are found to be close to each other for each city pair. It is found that the population, the gross domestic product, the in-flux, and the out-flux scale as power laws with respect to the transportation diversity in the raw and cost-based radiation models. It implies that a more developed city usually has higher diversity in highway truck transportation, which reflects the fact that a more developed city usually has a more diverse economic structure. View Full-Text
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, L.; Ma, J.-C.; Jiang, Z.-Q.; Yan, W.; Zhou, W.-X. Highway Freight Transportation Diversity of Cities Based on Radiation Models. Entropy 2021, 23, 637. https://doi.org/10.3390/e23050637

AMA Style

Wang L, Ma J-C, Jiang Z-Q, Yan W, Zhou W-X. Highway Freight Transportation Diversity of Cities Based on Radiation Models. Entropy. 2021; 23(5):637. https://doi.org/10.3390/e23050637

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Li, Jun-Chao Ma, Zhi-Qiang Jiang, Wanfeng Yan, and Wei-Xing Zhou. 2021. "Highway Freight Transportation Diversity of Cities Based on Radiation Models" Entropy 23, no. 5: 637. https://doi.org/10.3390/e23050637

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

1