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Open AccessArticle

Four-Types of IIT-Induced Group Integrity of Plecoglossus altivelis

1
Faculty of Engineering, Information and Systems University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573, Japan
2
Leading Graduate School Doctoral Program in Human Biology, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573, Japan
3
The Institute of Statistical Mathematics, Tachikawa, Tokyo 190-0014, Japan
4
Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 153-0041, Japan
5
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi 441-8580, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Entropy 2020, 22(7), 726; https://doi.org/10.3390/e22070726
Received: 9 May 2020 / Revised: 19 June 2020 / Accepted: 26 June 2020 / Published: 30 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Information Theory and Consciousness)
Integrated information theory (IIT) was initially proposed to describe human consciousness in terms of intrinsic-causal brain network structures. Particularly, IIT 3.0 targets the system’s cause–effect structure from spatio-temporal grain and reveals the system’s irreducibility. In a previous study, we tried to apply IIT 3.0 to an actual collective behaviour in Plecoglossus altivelis. We found that IIT 3.0 exhibits qualitative discontinuity between three and four schools of fish in terms of Φ value distributions. Other measures did not show similar characteristics. In this study, we followed up on our previous findings and introduced two new factors. First, we defined the global parameter settings to determine a different kind of group integrity. Second, we set several timescales (from Δ t = 5 / 120 to Δ t = 120 / 120 s). The results showed that we succeeded in classifying fish schools according to their group sizes and the degree of group integrity around the reaction time scale of the fish, despite the small group sizes. Compared with the short time scale, the interaction heterogeneity observed in the long time scale seems to diminish. Finally, we discuss one of the longstanding paradoxes in collective behaviour, known as the heap paradox, for which two tentative answers could be provided through our IIT 3.0 analysis.
Keywords: integrated information theory; collective behaviour; self-organization; cause and effect structure integrated information theory; collective behaviour; self-organization; cause and effect structure
MDPI and ACS Style

Niizato, T.; Sakamoto, K.; Mototake, Y.-I.; Murakami, H.; Tomaru, T.; Hoshika, T.; Fukushima, T. Four-Types of IIT-Induced Group Integrity of Plecoglossus altivelis. Entropy 2020, 22, 726.

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