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Article

Hydrodynamic and Thermodynamic Nonequilibrium Effects around Shock Waves: Based on a Discrete Boltzmann Method

1
Sino-French Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Technology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Zhuhai 519082, China
2
Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Energy and Power Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
3
School of Mechanics and Safety Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Entropy 2020, 22(12), 1397; https://doi.org/10.3390/e22121397
Received: 4 November 2020 / Revised: 26 November 2020 / Accepted: 7 December 2020 / Published: 10 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy-based Methods in In and Out of Equilibrium Systems)
A shock wave that is characterized by sharp physical gradients always draws the medium out of equilibrium. In this work, both hydrodynamic and thermodynamic nonequilibrium effects around the shock wave are investigated using a discrete Boltzmann model. Via Chapman–Enskog analysis, the local equilibrium and nonequilibrium velocity distribution functions in one-, two-, and three-dimensional velocity space are recovered across the shock wave. Besides, the absolute and relative deviation degrees are defined in order to describe the departure of the fluid system from the equilibrium state. The local and global nonequilibrium effects, nonorganized energy, and nonorganized energy flux are also investigated. Moreover, the impacts of the relaxation frequency, Mach number, thermal conductivity, viscosity, and the specific heat ratio on the nonequilibrium behaviours around shock waves are studied. This work is helpful for a deeper understanding of the fine structures of shock wave and nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. View Full-Text
Keywords: shock wave; velocity distribution function; nonequilibrium effect; discrete Boltzmann method shock wave; velocity distribution function; nonequilibrium effect; discrete Boltzmann method
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lin, C.; Su, X.; Zhang, Y. Hydrodynamic and Thermodynamic Nonequilibrium Effects around Shock Waves: Based on a Discrete Boltzmann Method. Entropy 2020, 22, 1397. https://doi.org/10.3390/e22121397

AMA Style

Lin C, Su X, Zhang Y. Hydrodynamic and Thermodynamic Nonequilibrium Effects around Shock Waves: Based on a Discrete Boltzmann Method. Entropy. 2020; 22(12):1397. https://doi.org/10.3390/e22121397

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lin, Chuandong, Xianli Su, and Yudong Zhang. 2020. "Hydrodynamic and Thermodynamic Nonequilibrium Effects around Shock Waves: Based on a Discrete Boltzmann Method" Entropy 22, no. 12: 1397. https://doi.org/10.3390/e22121397

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