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Entropy 2019, 21(3), 266;

Descriptions of Entropy with Fractal Dynamics and Their Applications to the Flow Pressure of Centrifugal Compressor

School of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 January 2019 / Revised: 3 March 2019 / Accepted: 4 March 2019 / Published: 8 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Fractional View of Complexity)
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In this study, some important intrinsic dynamics have been captured after analyzing the relationships between the dynamic pressure at an outlet of centrifugal compressor and fractal characteristics, which is one of powerful descriptions in entropy to measure the disorder or complexity in the nonlinear dynamic system. In particular, the fractal dynamics of dynamic pressure of the flow is studied, as the centrifugal compressor is in surge state, resulting in the dynamic pressure of flow and becoming a serious disorder and complex. First, the dynamic pressure at outlet of a centrifugal compressor with 800 kw is tested and then obtained by controlling the opening of the anti-surge valve at the outlet, and both the stable state and surge are initially tested and analyzed. Subsequently, the fractal dynamics is introduced to study the intrinsic dynamics of dynamic pressure under various working conditions, in order to identify surge, which is one typical flow instability in centrifugal compressor. Following fractal dynamics, the Hurst exponent, autocorrelation functions, and variance in measure theories of entropy are studied to obtain the mono-fractal characteristics of the centrifugal compressor. Further, the multi-fractal spectrums are investigated in some detail, and their physical meanings are consequently explained. At last, the statistical reliability of multi-fractal spectrum by modifying the original data has been studied. The results show that a distinct relationship between the dynamic pressure and fractal characteristics exists, including mono-fractal and multi-fractal, and such fractal dynamics are intrinsic. As the centrifugal compressor is working under normal condition, its autocorrelation function curve demonstrates apparent stochastic characteristics, and its Hurst exponent and variance are lower. However, its autocorrelation function curve demonstrates an apparent heavy tail distribution, and its Hurst exponent and variance are higher, as it is working in an unstable condition, namely, surge. In addition, the results show that the multi-fractal spectrum parameters are closely related to the dynamic pressure. With the state of centrifugal compressor being changed from stable to unstable states, some multi-fractal spectrum parameters Δα, Δf(α), αmax, and f(αmin) become larger, but αmin in the multi-fractal spectrum show the opposite trend, and consistent properties are graphically shown for the randomly shuffled data. As a conclusion, the proposed method, as one measure method for entropy, can be used to feasibly identify the incipient surge of a centrifugal compressor and design its surge controller. View Full-Text
Keywords: entropy; fractal dynamics; centrifugal compressor; surge; hurst exponent; multi-fractal spectrum entropy; fractal dynamics; centrifugal compressor; surge; hurst exponent; multi-fractal spectrum

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Liu, Y.; Ding, D.; Ma, K.; Gao, K. Descriptions of Entropy with Fractal Dynamics and Their Applications to the Flow Pressure of Centrifugal Compressor. Entropy 2019, 21, 266.

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