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Entropy 2019, 21(2), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/e21020215

The Choice of an Appropriate Information Dissimilarity Measure for Hierarchical Clustering of River Streamflow Time Series, Based on Calculated Lyapunov Exponent and Kolmogorov Measures

1
Faculty of Agriculture, University of Novi Sad, Dositej Obradovic Sq. 8, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
2
ACIMSI—Center for Meteorology and Environmental Modeling, University of Novi Sad, Dositej Obradovic Sq. 7, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
3
Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering and Zachry Department of Civil Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2117, USA
4
Departamento de Estatística e Informática, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Rua Dom Manoel de Medeiros s/n, DoisIrmãos, 52171-900 Recife, Brazil
5
Faculty of Sciences, Department of Geography, University of Sarajevo, Zmaj from Bosnia 33–35, 71000 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 January 2019 / Revised: 11 February 2019 / Accepted: 22 February 2019 / Published: 23 February 2019
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Abstract

The purpose of this paper was to choose an appropriate information dissimilarity measure for hierarchical clustering of daily streamflow discharge data, from twelve gauging stations on the Brazos River in Texas (USA), for the period 1989–2016. For that purpose, we selected and compared the average-linkage clustering hierarchical algorithm based on the compression-based dissimilarity measure (NCD), permutation distribution dissimilarity measure (PDDM), and Kolmogorov distance (KD). The algorithm was also compared with K-means clustering based on Kolmogorov complexity (KC), the highest value of Kolmogorov complexity spectrum (KCM), and the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE). Using a dissimilarity matrix based on NCD, PDDM, and KD for daily streamflow, the agglomerative average-linkage hierarchical algorithm was applied. The key findings of this study are that: (i) The KD clustering algorithm is the most suitable among others; (ii) ANOVA analysis shows that there exist highly significant differences between mean values of four clusters, confirming that the choice of the number of clusters was suitably done; and (iii) from the clustering we found that the predictability of streamflow data of the Brazos River given by the Lyapunov time (LT), corrected for randomness by Kolmogorov time (KT) in days, lies in the interval from two to five days. View Full-Text
Keywords: streamflow time series; Brazos River; average-linkage clustering hierarchical algorithm; K-means clustering; Kolmogorov complexity-based measures; largest Lyapunov exponent; Lyapunov time; Kolmogorov time; predictability of streamflow time series streamflow time series; Brazos River; average-linkage clustering hierarchical algorithm; K-means clustering; Kolmogorov complexity-based measures; largest Lyapunov exponent; Lyapunov time; Kolmogorov time; predictability of streamflow time series
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Mihailović, D.T.; Nikolić-Đorić, E.; Malinović-Milićević, S.; Singh, V.P.; Mihailović, A.; Stošić, T.; Stošić, B.; Drešković, N. The Choice of an Appropriate Information Dissimilarity Measure for Hierarchical Clustering of River Streamflow Time Series, Based on Calculated Lyapunov Exponent and Kolmogorov Measures. Entropy 2019, 21, 215.

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