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Entropy 2019, 21(1), 58;

Unavoidable Destroyed Exergy in Crude Oil Pipelines due to Wax Precipitation

Key Lab of Ministry of Education for Enhancing the Oil and Gas Recovery Ratio, Northeast Petroleum University, Daqing 163318, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 October 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 12 January 2019
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Based on the technological requirements related to waxy crude oil pipeline transportation, both unavoidable and avoidable destroyed exergy are defined. Considering the changing characteristics of flow pattern and flow regime over the course of the oil transportation process, a method of dividing station oil pipelines into transportation intervals is suggested according to characteristic temperatures, such as the wax precipitation point and abnormal point. The critical transition temperature and the specific heat capacity of waxy crude oil are calculated, and an unavoidable destroyed exergy formula is derived. Then, taking the Daqing oil pipeline as an example, unavoidable destroyed exergy in various transportation intervals are calculated during the actual processes. Furthermore, the influential rules under various design and operation parameters are further analyzed. The maximum and minimum unavoidable destroyed exergy are 381.128 kJ/s and 30.259 kJ/s. When the design parameters are simulated, and the maximum unavoidable destroyed exergy is 625 kJ/s at the diameter about 250 mm. With the increase of insulation layer thickness, the unavoidable destroyed exergy decreases continuously, and the minimum unavoidable destroyed exergy is 22 kJ/s at 30 mm. And the burial depth has little effect on the unavoidable destroyed exergy. When the operation parameters are simulated, the destroyed exergy increases, but it is less affected by the outlet pressure. The increase amplitude of unavoidable destroyed exergy will not exceed 2% after the throughput rises to 80 m3/h. When the outlet temperature increases until 65 °C, the loss increase range will not exceed 4%. Thus, this study provides a theoretical basis for the safe and economical transportation of waxy crude oil. View Full-Text
Keywords: waxy crude oil; pipeline transportation; characteristic temperature; the unavoidable destroyed exergy waxy crude oil; pipeline transportation; characteristic temperature; the unavoidable destroyed exergy

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Cheng, Q.; Yang, J.; Zheng, A.; Yang, L.; Gan, Y.; Liu, Y. Unavoidable Destroyed Exergy in Crude Oil Pipelines due to Wax Precipitation. Entropy 2019, 21, 58.

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