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Entropy 2019, 21(1), 21;

Entropy Analysis of the Flat Tip Leakage Flow with Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation

Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Energy and Power Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 November 2018 / Revised: 16 December 2018 / Accepted: 24 December 2018 / Published: 28 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy in Computational Fluid Dynamics II )
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In unshrouded turbine rotors, the tip leakage vortices develop and interact with the passage vortices. Such complex leakage flow causes the major loss in the turbine stage. Due to the complex turbulence characteristics of the tip leakage flow, the widely used Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) approach may fail to accurately predict the multi-scale turbulent flow and the related loss. In order to effectively improve the turbine efficiency, more insights into the loss mechanism are required. In this work, a Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (DDES) study is conducted to simulate the flow inside a high pressure turbine blade, with emphasis on the tip region. DDES results are in good agreement with the experiment, and the comparison with RANS results verifies the advantages of DDES in resolving detailed flow structures of leakage flow, and also in capturing the complex turbulence characteristics. The snapshot Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) method is used to extract the dominant flow features. The flow structures and the distribution of turbulent kinetic energy reveal the development of leakage flow and its interaction with the secondary flow. Meanwhile, it is found that the separation bubble (SB) is formed in tip clearance. The strong interactions between tip leakage vortex (TLV) and the up passage vortex (UPV) are the main source of unsteady effects which significantly enhance the turbulence intensity. Based on the DDES results, loss analysis of tip leakage flow is conducted based on entropy generation rates. It is found that the viscous dissipation loss is much stronger than heat transfer loss. The largest local loss occurs in the tip clearance, and the interaction between the leakage vortex and up passage vortex promotes the loss generation. The tip leakage flow vortex weakens the strength of up passage vortex, and loss of up passage flow is reduced. Comparing steady and unsteady effects to flow field, we found that unsteady effects of tip leakage flow have a large influence on flow loss distribution which cannot be ignored. To sum up, the current DDES study about the tip leakage flow provides helpful information about the loss generation mechanism and may guide the design of low-loss blade tip. View Full-Text
Keywords: flat tip; leakage flow; turbulence structures; loss analysis; DDES flat tip; leakage flow; turbulence structures; loss analysis; DDES

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Li, H.; Su, X.; Yuan, X. Entropy Analysis of the Flat Tip Leakage Flow with Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation. Entropy 2019, 21, 21.

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