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Entropy 2018, 20(5), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/e20050336

Entropy Generation Analysis and Natural Convection in a Nanofluid-Filled Square Cavity with a Concentric Solid Insert and Different Temperature Distributions

1
Refrigeration & Air-conditioning Technical Engineering Department, College of Technical Engineering, The Islamic University, Najaf 54001, Iraq
2
Center for Modelling & Data Science, Faculty of Science & Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia
3
Department of Engineering, College of Foundation and Diploma Studies, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Kajang 43000, Selangor, Malaysia
4
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Prince Sultan Endowment for Energy and the Environment, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, Al-Khobar 31952, Saudi Arabia
5
RAK Research and Innovation Center, American University of Ras Al Khaimah, P.O. Box 10021, Ras Al Khaimah 86416, UAE
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 April 2018 / Revised: 29 April 2018 / Accepted: 30 April 2018 / Published: 3 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Thermodynamics)
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Abstract

The problem of entropy generation analysis and natural convection in a nanofluid square cavity with a concentric solid insert and different temperature distributions is studied numerically by the finite difference method. An isothermal heater is placed on the bottom wall while isothermal cold sources are distributed along the top and side walls of the square cavity. The remainder of these walls are kept adiabatic. Water-based nanofluids with Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles are chosen for the investigation. The governing dimensionless parameters of this study are the nanoparticles volume fraction ( 0 ϕ 0.09 ), Rayleigh number ( 10 3 R a 10 6 ) , thermal conductivity ratio ( 0.44 K r 23.8 ) and length of the inner solid ( 0 D 0.7 ). Comparisons with previously experimental and numerical published works verify a very good agreement with the proposed numerical method. Numerical results are presented graphically in the form of streamlines, isotherms and local entropy generation as well as the local and average Nusselt numbers. The obtained results indicate that the thermal conductivity ratio and the inner solid size are excellent control parameters for an optimization of heat transfer and Bejan number within the fully heated and partially cooled square cavity. View Full-Text
Keywords: natural convection; entropy generation; finite difference method; nanofluid; inner solid insert; square cavity natural convection; entropy generation; finite difference method; nanofluid; inner solid insert; square cavity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Alsabery, A.I.; Ishak, M.S.; Chamkha, A.J.; Hashim, I. Entropy Generation Analysis and Natural Convection in a Nanofluid-Filled Square Cavity with a Concentric Solid Insert and Different Temperature Distributions. Entropy 2018, 20, 336.

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