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Entropy 2018, 20(3), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/e20030180

Fruit-80: A Secure Ultra-Lightweight Stream Cipher for Constrained Environments

Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Space Information, Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Information Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China
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Received: 4 February 2018 / Revised: 5 March 2018 / Accepted: 5 March 2018 / Published: 8 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information Theory and 5G Technologies)
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Abstract

In Fast Software Encryption (FSE) 2015, while presenting a new idea (i.e., the design of stream ciphers with the small internal state by using a secret key, not only in the initialization but also in the keystream generation), Sprout was proposed. Sprout was insecure and an improved version of Sprout was presented in FSE 2017. We introduced Fruit stream cipher informally in 2016 on the web page of IACR (eprint) and few cryptanalysis were published on it. Fortunately, the main structure of Fruit was resistant. Now, Fruit-80 is presented as a final version which is easier to implement and is secure. The size of LFSR and NFSR in Fruit-80 is only 80 bits (for 80-bit security level), while for resistance to the classical time-memory-data tradeoff (TMDTO) attacks, the internal state size should be at least twice that of the security level. To satisfy this rule and to design a concrete cipher, we used some new design ideas. It seems that the bottleneck of designing an ultra-lightweight stream cipher is TMDTO distinguishing attacks. A countermeasure was suggested, and another countermeasure is proposed here. Fruit-80 is better than other small-state stream ciphers in terms of the initialization speed and area size in hardware. It is possible to redesign many of the stream ciphers and achieve significantly smaller area size by using the new idea. View Full-Text
Keywords: stream cipher; ultra-lightweight; lightweight; Grain; small-state; NFSR; LFSR; hardware implementation stream cipher; ultra-lightweight; lightweight; Grain; small-state; NFSR; LFSR; hardware implementation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Amin Ghafari, V.; Hu, H. Fruit-80: A Secure Ultra-Lightweight Stream Cipher for Constrained Environments. Entropy 2018, 20, 180.

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