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Entropy 2017, 19(11), 621; https://doi.org/10.3390/e19110621

Thermodynamics: The Unique Universal Science

Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Aerospace Engineering, Atlanta, GA 30332-0150, USA
Received: 28 June 2017 / Revised: 3 October 2017 / Accepted: 7 November 2017 / Published: 17 November 2017
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Abstract

Thermodynamics is a physical branch of science that governs the thermal behavior of dynamical systems from those as simple as refrigerators to those as complex as our expanding universe. The laws of thermodynamics involving conservation of energy and nonconservation of entropy are, without a doubt, two of the most useful and general laws in all sciences. The first law of thermodynamics, according to which energy cannot be created or destroyed, merely transformed from one form to another, and the second law of thermodynamics, according to which the usable energy in an adiabatically isolated dynamical system is always diminishing in spite of the fact that energy is conserved, have had an impact far beyond science and engineering. In this paper, we trace the history of thermodynamics from its classical to its postmodern forms, and present a tutorial and didactic exposition of thermodynamics as it pertains to some of the deepest secrets of the universe. View Full-Text
Keywords: classical thermodynamics; statistical thermodynamics; system thermodynamics; entropy; dynamical systems theory; relativity theory; gravity; life, consciousness, and death; entropic arrow of time classical thermodynamics; statistical thermodynamics; system thermodynamics; entropy; dynamical systems theory; relativity theory; gravity; life, consciousness, and death; entropic arrow of time
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Haddad, W.M. Thermodynamics: The Unique Universal Science. Entropy 2017, 19, 621.

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