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One Antimatter— Two Possible Thermodynamics

The University of Queensland, SoMME, QLD 4072, Australia
Karlsruher Institut fur Technologie, ITT, 76131, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Entropy 2014, 16(3), 1191-1210;
Received: 10 September 2013 / Revised: 13 December 2013 / Accepted: 5 February 2014 / Published: 25 February 2014
Conventional thermodynamics, which is formulated for our world populated by radiation and matter, can be extended to describe physical properties of antimatter in two mutually exclusive ways: CP-invariant or CPT-invariant. Here we refer to invariance of physical laws under charge (C), parity (P) and time reversal (T) transformations. While in quantum field theory CPT invariance is a theorem confirmed by experiments, the symmetry principles applied to macroscopic phenomena or to the whole of the Universe represent only hypotheses. Since both versions of thermodynamics are different only in their treatment of antimatter, but are the same in describing our world dominated by matter, making a clear experimentally justified choice between CP invariance and CPT invariance in context of thermodynamics is not possible at present. This work investigates the comparative properties of the CP- and CPT-invariant extensions of thermodynamics (focusing on the latter, which is less conventional than the former) and examines conditions under which these extensions can be experimentally tested. View Full-Text
Keywords: thermodynamic time; CPT-invariance; negative temperatures thermodynamic time; CPT-invariance; negative temperatures
MDPI and ACS Style

Klimenko, A.Y.; Maas, U. One Antimatter— Two Possible Thermodynamics. Entropy 2014, 16, 1191-1210.

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