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Special Issue "microRNA Regulation 2017"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Y-h. Taguchi

Department of Physics, Chuo University, Tokyo, Japan
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +81 3 3817 1791
Fax: +81 3 3817 1792
Interests: gene expression analysis; microRNA regulation of target genes; multivariate analysis; feature extraction
Co-Guest Editor
Dr. Kumiko UI-TEI

Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan, Department of Computational Biology and Medical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba, Japan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: RNA silencing; siRNA; miRNA; gene regulation; thermodynamics
Co-Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Andreas Keller

Clinical Bioinformatics, Saarland University, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: microRNAs; systems biology; bioinformatics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

MicroRNA is a short non-coding RNA whose primary function is supposed to be post-transcriptional regulation of mRNAs. Although it has been extensively studied for over a decade, its detailed mechanisms have not yet been fully understood. The difficulty is possibly because of lack of experimentally and theoretically effective methods, and this should be solved by invention of new technologies. Thus, any new proposals regarding them are welcomed. In addition to these, many new aspects, e.g., coordinated actions of microRNA with various epigenetic factors, including promoter methylations, histone modifications, and structures of chromosome, have started to pique researchers’ interests. Furthermore, non-canonical functions, e.g., functionalities inside nuclei and non-canonical bindings, also seem to be important. In conclusion, any research papers about new theoretical, computational, or experimental methodologies, as well as excellent reviews regarding these topics are welcomed. MicroRNA regulations, of not only target genes, but also any pathways, diseases, or differentiation, are also interesting topics. We are looking forward to receiving many submissions from outstanding expert on these topics.

Prof. Y-h. Taguchi
Guest Editor

Dr. Kumiko UI-TEI
Prof. Dr. Andreas Keller
Co-Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • microRNA regulation of target genes
  • microRNA regulation of pathways
  • microRNA regulation of diseases
  • coordinated actions with various epigenetic factors
  • microRNA functions inside nuclei

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (35 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Co-Expression Network and Pathway Analyses Reveal Important Modules of miRNAs Regulating Milk Yield and Component Traits
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1560; doi:10.3390/ijms18071560
Received: 22 June 2017 / Revised: 5 July 2017 / Accepted: 5 July 2017 / Published: 18 July 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3866 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Co-expression network analyses provide insights into the molecular interactions underlying complex traits and diseases. In this study, co-expression network analysis was performed to detect expression patterns (modules or clusters) of microRNAs (miRNAs) during lactation, and to identify miRNA regulatory mechanisms for milk yield
[...] Read more.
Co-expression network analyses provide insights into the molecular interactions underlying complex traits and diseases. In this study, co-expression network analysis was performed to detect expression patterns (modules or clusters) of microRNAs (miRNAs) during lactation, and to identify miRNA regulatory mechanisms for milk yield and component traits (fat, protein, somatic cell count (SCC), lactose, and milk urea nitrogen (MUN)) via miRNA target gene enrichment analysis. miRNA expression (713 miRNAs), and milk yield and components (Fat%, Protein%, lactose, SCC, MUN) data of nine cows at each of six different time points (day 30 (D30), D70, D130, D170, D230 and D290) of an entire lactation curve were used. Four modules or clusters (GREEN, BLUE, RED and TURQUOISE) of miRNAs were identified as important for milk yield and component traits. The GREEN and BLUE modules were significantly correlated (|r| > 0.5) with milk yield and lactose, respectively. The RED and TURQUOISE modules were significantly correlated (|r| > 0.5) with both SCC and lactose. In the GREEN module, three abundantly expressed miRNAs (miR-148a, miR-186 and miR-200a) were most significantly correlated to milk yield, and are probably the most important miRNAs for this trait. DDR1 and DDHX1 are hub genes for miRNA regulatory networks controlling milk yield, while HHEX is an important transcription regulator for these networks. miR-18a, miR-221/222 cluster, and transcription factors HOXA7, and NOTCH 3 and 4, are important for the regulation of lactose. miR-142, miR-146a, and miR-EIA17-14144 (a novel miRNA), and transcription factors in the SMAD family and MYB, are important for the regulation of SCC. Important signaling pathways enriched for target genes of miRNAs of significant modules, included protein kinase A and PTEN signaling for milk yield, eNOS and Noth signaling for lactose, and TGF β, HIPPO, Wnt/β-catenin and cell cycle signaling for SCC. Relevant enriched gene ontology (GO)-terms related to milk and mammary gland traits included cell differentiation, G-protein coupled receptor activity, and intracellular signaling transduction. Overall, this study uncovered regulatory networks in which miRNAs interacted with each other to regulate lactation traits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA Regulation 2017)
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Open AccessArticle miR-206-3p Inhibits 3T3-L1 Cell Adipogenesis via the c-Met/PI3K/Akt Pathway
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1510; doi:10.3390/ijms18071510
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 6 July 2017 / Accepted: 6 July 2017 / Published: 14 July 2017
PDF Full-text (3940 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators during adipocyte adipogenesis. MiR-206-3p, a tissue-specific miRNA, is absent in white adipocytes. In this study, we examined the roles of mmu-miR-206-3p in the adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The miR-206-3p expression has shown an apparent decreasing trend
[...] Read more.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators during adipocyte adipogenesis. MiR-206-3p, a tissue-specific miRNA, is absent in white adipocytes. In this study, we examined the roles of mmu-miR-206-3p in the adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The miR-206-3p expression has shown an apparent decreasing trend after induction, and sustained low expression throughout the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. miR-206-3p blocked the adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells by attenuating c-Met expression; the inhibition effect of miR-206 to the adipogenic differentiation can be counteracted by restoring c-Met expression. In addition, miR-206-3p decreased the phosphorylation of Akt, which is the downstream effector of c-Met in the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. These data indicate that miR-206-3p inhibits adipocyte adipogenesis through silencing c-Met and subsequently inactivating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA Regulation 2017)
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Open AccessArticle MicroRNA Signature of Human Microvascular Endothelium Infected with Rickettsia rickettsii
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1471; doi:10.3390/ijms18071471
Received: 7 April 2017 / Revised: 29 June 2017 / Accepted: 5 July 2017 / Published: 9 July 2017
PDF Full-text (1753 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) mediate gene silencing by destabilization and/or translational repression of target mRNA. Infection of human microvascular endothelial cells as primary targets of Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiologic agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, triggers host responses appertaining to alterations in cellular gene
[...] Read more.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) mediate gene silencing by destabilization and/or translational repression of target mRNA. Infection of human microvascular endothelial cells as primary targets of Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiologic agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, triggers host responses appertaining to alterations in cellular gene expression. Microarray-based profiling of endothelial cells infected with R. rickettsii for 3 or 24 h revealed differential expression of 33 miRNAs, of which miRNAs129-5p, 200a-3p, 297, 200b-3p, and 595 were identified as the top five up-regulated miRNAs (5 to 20-fold, p ≤ 0.01) and miRNAs 301b-3p, 548a-3p, and 377-3p were down-regulated (2 to 3-fold, p ≤ 0.01). Changes in the expression of selected miRNAs were confirmed by q-RT-PCR in both in vitro and in vivo models of infection. As potential targets, expression of genes encoding NOTCH1, SMAD2, SMAD3, RIN2, SOD1, and SOD2 was either positively or negatively regulated. Using a miRNA-specific mimic or inhibitor, NOTCH1 was determined to be a target of miRNA 200a-3p in R. rickettsii-infected human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs). Predictive interactome mapping suggested the potential for miRNA-mediated modulation of regulatory gene networks underlying important host cell signaling pathways. This first demonstration of altered endothelial miRNA expression provides new insights into regulatory elements governing mechanisms of host responses and pathogenesis during human rickettsial infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA Regulation 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Estrogen Promotes Hepatic Synthesis of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids by Regulating ELOVL5 at Post-Transcriptional Level in Laying Hens
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1405; doi:10.3390/ijms18071405
Received: 3 June 2017 / Revised: 21 June 2017 / Accepted: 26 June 2017 / Published: 30 June 2017
PDF Full-text (3744 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The very long chain fatty acid elongase (ELOVL) plays an important role in the synthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA). Previous studies suggest that chicken could be an alternate source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In this study, we
[...] Read more.
The very long chain fatty acid elongase (ELOVL) plays an important role in the synthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA). Previous studies suggest that chicken could be an alternate source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In this study, we detected that ELOVL5, which plays a key role in the biosynthesis of omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), was highly expressed in the liver of laying hens and increased rapidly after sexual maturity. Bioinformatic analysis revealed ELOVL fatty acid elongase 5 (ELOVL5) gene as a putative target of miR-218-5p, miR-19a-3p, miR-19b-3p, miR-30a-5p, miR-30b-5p, and miR-30e-5p. We demonstrated estrogen downregulated microRNA (miRNA), and that ELOVL5 is a direct target of miR-218-5p, which was located in intron 14 of the Slit guidance ligand 2 (SLIT2) gene and co-expressed with the host gene. Overall, estrogen enhanced hepatic synthesis of LCPUFA by functioning as a negative regulator of miRNA thereby augmenting the expression of these miRNA target genes, especially ELOVL5, which plays a key role in the biosynthesis of n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA. This study provides a novel model for the use of estrogen in the poultry industry as an inducer of ELOVL5 expression to enhance hepatic n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA synthesis at the post-transcriptional level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA Regulation 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Expression of Salivary miR-203a-3p Was Related with Oral Health-Related Quality of Life in Healthy Volunteers
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1263; doi:10.3390/ijms18061263
Received: 9 May 2017 / Revised: 6 June 2017 / Accepted: 8 June 2017 / Published: 13 June 2017
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Abstract
Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is a multidimensional construct that involves subjective evaluation of an individual’s oral health. Although it is difficult to evaluate OHRQoL biologically, recently, it has been reported that circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in several body fluids could reflect various
[...] Read more.
Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is a multidimensional construct that involves subjective evaluation of an individual’s oral health. Although it is difficult to evaluate OHRQoL biologically, recently, it has been reported that circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in several body fluids could reflect various health conditions. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether salivary miRNAs expression differs according to OHRQoL in healthy volunteers. Forty-six volunteers (median age, 23.0 years) were recruited, and their OHRQoL was assessed using the Japanese version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-J). Then, we compared salivary microRNA profiles of the high-OHRQoL group (≤25th percentile score of OHIP-J) and the low-OHRQoL group (≥75th percentile score of OHIP-J) using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array and the quantitative real-time PCR. There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of oral health status. In the PCR array, miR-203a-3p and miR-30b-5p were significantly more expressed in the low-OHRQoL group (p < 0.05). Quantitative real-time PCR assay also showed that miR-203a-3p was more highly expressed in the low-OHRQoL group than in the high-OHRQoL group (p < 0.05). These observations suggest that expression of salivary miR-203a-3p was related with OHRQoL in healthy volunteers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA Regulation 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Cross-Kingdom Regulation of Putative miRNAs Derived from Happy Tree in Cancer Pathway: A Systems Biology Approach
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1191; doi:10.3390/ijms18061191
Received: 20 April 2017 / Revised: 17 May 2017 / Accepted: 27 May 2017 / Published: 3 June 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3325 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are well-known key regulators of gene expression primarily at the post-transcriptional level. Plant-derived miRNAs may pass through the gastrointestinal tract, entering into the body fluid and regulate the expression of endogenous mRNAs. Camptotheca acuminata, a highly important medicinal plant known
[...] Read more.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are well-known key regulators of gene expression primarily at the post-transcriptional level. Plant-derived miRNAs may pass through the gastrointestinal tract, entering into the body fluid and regulate the expression of endogenous mRNAs. Camptotheca acuminata, a highly important medicinal plant known for its anti-cancer potential was selected to investigate cross-kingdom regulatory mechanism and involvement of miRNAs derived from this plant in cancer-associated pathways through in silico systems biology approach. In this study, total 33 highly stable putative novel miRNAs were predicted from the publically available 53,294 ESTs of C. acuminata, out of which 14 miRNAs were found to be regulating 152 target genes in human. Functional enrichment, gene-disease associations and network analysis of these target genes were carried out and the results revealed their association with prominent types of cancers like breast cancer, leukemia and lung cancer. Pathways like focal adhesion, regulation of lipolysis in adipocytes and mTOR signaling pathways were found significantly associated with the target genes. The regulatory network analysis showed the association of some important hub proteins like GSK3B, NUMB, PEG3, ITGA2 and DLG2 with cancer-associated pathways. Based on the analysis results, it can be suggested that the ingestion of the C. acuminata miRNAs may have a functional impact on tumorigenesis in a cross-kingdom way and may affect the physiological condition at genetic level. Thus, the predicted miRNAs seem to hold potentially significant role in cancer pathway regulation and therefore, may be further validated using in vivo experiments for a better insight into their mechanism of epigenetic action of miRNA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA Regulation 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Identification of Differentially Expressed Micrornas Associate with Glucose Metabolism in Different Organs of Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1161; doi:10.3390/ijms18061161
Received: 11 May 2017 / Revised: 25 May 2017 / Accepted: 25 May 2017 / Published: 31 May 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6472 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) is a widely favored herbivorous fish species and is a frequentlyused fish model for studying the metabolism physiology. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive illustration of the mechanisms of a high-starch diet (HSD) induced lipid
[...] Read more.
Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) is a widely favored herbivorous fish species and is a frequentlyused fish model for studying the metabolism physiology. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive illustration of the mechanisms of a high-starch diet (HSD) induced lipid metabolic disorder by identifying microRNAs (miRNAs) controlled pathways in glucose and lipid metabolism in fish using high-throughput sequencing technologies. Small RNA libraries derived from intestines, livers, and brains of HSD and normal-starch diet (NSD) treated M. amblycephala were sequenced and 79, 124 and 77 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) in intestines, livers, and brains of HSD treated fish were identified, respectively. Bioinformatics analyses showed that these DEMs targeted hundreds of predicted genes were enriched into metabolic pathways and biosynthetic processes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, and insulin signaling pathway. These analyses confirmed that miRNAs play crucial roles in glucose and lipid metabolism related to high wheat starch treatment. These results provide information on further investigation of a DEM-related mechanism dysregulated by a high carbohydrate diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA Regulation 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Changes of Microrna Levels in Plasma of Patients with Rectal Cancer during Chemoradiotherapy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1140; doi:10.3390/ijms18061140
Received: 4 April 2017 / Revised: 19 May 2017 / Accepted: 22 May 2017 / Published: 27 May 2017
PDF Full-text (1999 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Since the response to chemoradiotherapy in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer is heterogeneous, valid biomarkers are needed to monitor tumor response. Circulating microRNAs are promising candidates, however analyses of circulating microRNAs in rectal cancer are still rare. 111 patients with rectal cancer
[...] Read more.
Since the response to chemoradiotherapy in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer is heterogeneous, valid biomarkers are needed to monitor tumor response. Circulating microRNAs are promising candidates, however analyses of circulating microRNAs in rectal cancer are still rare. 111 patients with rectal cancer and 46 age-matched normal controls were enrolled. The expression levels of 30 microRNAs were analyzed in 17 pre-treatment patients’ plasma samples. Differentially regulated microRNAs were validated in 94 independent patients. For 52 of the 94 patients a paired comparison between pre-treatment and post-treatment samples was performed. miR-17, miR-18b, miR-20a, miR-31, and miR-193a_3p, were significantly downregulated in pre-treatment plasma samples of patients with rectal cancer (p < 0.05). miR-29c, miR-30c, and miR-195 showed a trend of differential regulation. After validation, miR-31 and miR-30c were significantly deregulated by a decrease of expression. In 52 patients expression analyses of the 8 microRNAs in matched pre-treatment and post-treatment samples showed a significant decrease for all microRNAs (p < 0.05) after treatment. Expression levels of miR-31 and miR-30c could serve as valid biomarkers if validated in a prospective study. Plasma microRNA expression levels do not necessarily represent miRNA expression levels in tumor tissue. Also, expression levels of microRNAs change during multimodal therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA Regulation 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Overexpression of Exosomal Cardioprotective miRNAs Mitigates Hypoxia-Induced H9c2 Cells Apoptosis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 711; doi:10.3390/ijms18040711
Received: 10 February 2017 / Revised: 20 March 2017 / Accepted: 24 March 2017 / Published: 28 March 2017
PDF Full-text (3308 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Recent evidence suggests that hypoxia caused by acute myocardial infarction can induce cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Exosomes are signalling mediators that contribute to intercellular communication by transporting cytosolic components including miRNAs, mRNAs, and proteins. However, the systemic regulation and function of exosomal miRNAs in hypoxic
[...] Read more.
Recent evidence suggests that hypoxia caused by acute myocardial infarction can induce cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Exosomes are signalling mediators that contribute to intercellular communication by transporting cytosolic components including miRNAs, mRNAs, and proteins. However, the systemic regulation and function of exosomal miRNAs in hypoxic cardiomyocytes are currently not well understood. Here, we used small RNA sequencing to investigate the effects of hypoxia stress on miRNAome of rat cardiomyoblast cells (H9c2) and corresponding exosomes. We identified 92 and 62 miRNAs in cells and exosomes, respectively, that were differentially expressed between hypoxia and normoxia. Hypoxia strongly modulated expression of hypoxia-associated miRNAs in H9c2 cells, and altered the miRNAome of H9c2 cells-derived exosomes. Functional enrichment analysis revealed extensive roles of differentially expressed exosomal miRNAs in the HIF-1 signalling pathway and in apoptosis-related pathways including the TNF, MAPK, and mTOR pathways. Furthermore, gain- and loss-of-function analysis demonstrated potential anti-apoptotic effects of the hypoxia-induced exosomal miRNAs, including miR-21-5p, miR-378-3p, miR-152-3p, and let-7i-5p; luciferase reporter assay confirmed that Atg12 and Faslg are targets of miR-152-3p and let-7i-5p, respectively. To summarize, this study revealed that hypoxia-induced exosomes derived from H9c2 cells loaded cardioprotective miRNAs, which mitigate hypoxia-induced H9c2 cells apoptosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA Regulation 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Evolution of Fish Let-7 MicroRNAs and Their Expression Correlated to Growth Development in Blunt Snout Bream
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 646; doi:10.3390/ijms18030646
Received: 28 January 2017 / Revised: 12 March 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 16 March 2017
PDF Full-text (4045 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The lethal-7 (let-7) miRNA, known as one of the first founding miRNAs, is present in multiple copies in a genome and has diverse functions in animals. In this study, comparative genomic analysis of let-7 miRNAs members in fish species indicated that
[...] Read more.
The lethal-7 (let-7) miRNA, known as one of the first founding miRNAs, is present in multiple copies in a genome and has diverse functions in animals. In this study, comparative genomic analysis of let-7 miRNAs members in fish species indicated that let-7 miRNA is a sequence conserved family in fish, while different species have the variable gene copy numbers. Among the ten members including let-7a/b/c/d/e/f/g/h/i/j, the let-7a precursor sequence was more similar to ancestral sequences, whereas other let-7 miRNA members were separate from the late differentiation of let-7a. The mostly predicted target genes of let-7 miRNAs are involved in biological process, especially developmental process and growth through Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis. In order to identify the possible different functions of these ten miRNAs in fish growth development, their expression levels were quantified in adult males and females of Megalobrama amblycephala, as well as in 3-, 6-, and 12-months-old individuals with relatively slow- and fast-growth rates. These ten miRNAs had similar tissue expression patterns between males and females, with higher expression levels in the brain and pituitary than that in other tissues (p < 0.05). Among these miRNAs, the relative expression level of let-7a was the highest among almost all the tested tissues, followed by let-7b, let-7d and let-7c/e/f/g/h/i/j. As to the groups with different growth rates, the expression levels of let-7 miRNAs in pituitary and brain from the slow-growth group were always significantly higher than that in the fast-growth group (p < 0.05). These results suggest that let-7 miRNA members could play an important role in the regulation of growth development in M. amblycephala through negatively regulating expression of their target genes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA Regulation 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Identification of Autophagy-Related Genes and Their Regulatory miRNAs Associated with Celiac Disease in Children
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 391; doi:10.3390/ijms18020391
Received: 2 December 2016 / Revised: 27 January 2017 / Accepted: 6 February 2017 / Published: 12 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6099 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Celiac disease (CD) is a severe genetic autoimmune disorder, affecting about one in 100 people, where the ingestion of gluten leads to damage in the small intestine. Diagnosing CD is quite complex and requires blood tests and intestinal biopsy examinations. Controversy exists regarding
[...] Read more.
Celiac disease (CD) is a severe genetic autoimmune disorder, affecting about one in 100 people, where the ingestion of gluten leads to damage in the small intestine. Diagnosing CD is quite complex and requires blood tests and intestinal biopsy examinations. Controversy exists regarding making the diagnosis without biopsy, due to the large spectrum of manifesting symptoms; furthermore, small-intestinal gastroscopy examinations have a relatively complex management in the pediatric population. To identify novel molecular markers useful to increase the sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of pediatric CD patients, the expression levels of two key autophagy executor genes (ATG7 and BECN1) and their regulatory validated miRNAs (miR-17 and miR-30a, respectively) were analyzed by relative quantitative real-time-PCR on a cohort of confirmed CD patients compared to age-related controls. Among the investigated targets, the non-parametric Mann–Whitney U test and ROC analysis indicated the highest significant association of BECN1 with CD status in the blood, while in intestinal biopsies, all of the investigated sequences were positively associated with CD diagnosis. Nomogram-based analysis showed nearly opposite expression trends in blood compared to intestine tissue, while hierarchical clustering dendrograms enabled identifying CD and control subgroups based on specific genes and miRNA expression signatures. Next, using an established in vitro approach, through digested gliadin administration in Caco-2 cells, we also highlighted that the modulation of miR-17 endogenous levels using enriched exosomes increased the intracellular autophagosome content, thereby altering the autophagic status. Altogether, these results highlighted novel molecular markers that might be useful to increase the accuracy in CD diagnosis and in molecular-based stratification of the patients, further reinforcing the functional involvement of the regulation of the autophagy process within a digestive and autoimmune-related disorder as CD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA Regulation 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on miRNA Profiles of Monocytes/Macrophages and Endothelial Cells—A Pilot Study
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 284; doi:10.3390/ijms18020284
Received: 21 November 2016 / Revised: 16 January 2017 / Accepted: 23 January 2017 / Published: 28 January 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2010 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Alteration of miRNAs and dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) underlies vascular inflammation. PUFAs are known to be incorporated into the cell membrane of monocytes/macrophages or endothelial cells, the major cellular players of vascular diseases, thereby affecting cellular signal transduction. Nevertheless, there are no
[...] Read more.
Alteration of miRNAs and dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) underlies vascular inflammation. PUFAs are known to be incorporated into the cell membrane of monocytes/macrophages or endothelial cells, the major cellular players of vascular diseases, thereby affecting cellular signal transduction. Nevertheless, there are no investigations concerning the PUFA impact on miRNA expression by these cells. With regard to the key role miRNAs play for overall cellular functionality, this study aims to elucidate whether PUFAs affect miRNA expression profiles. To this end, the monocyte/macrophage cell line RAW264.7 and the endothelial cell line TIME were enriched with either docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; n3-PUFA) or arachidonic acid (AA; n6-PUFA) until reaching a stable incorporation into the plasma membrane and, at least in part, exposed to an inflammatory milieu. Expressed miRNAs were determined by deep sequencing, and compared to unsupplemented/unstimulated controls. Data gained clearly show that PUFAs in fact modulate miRNA expression of both cell types analyzed regardless the presence/absence of an inflammatory stimulator. Moreover, certain miRNAs already linked to vascular inflammation were found to be affected by cellular PUFA enrichment. Hence, vascular inflammation appears to be influenced by dietary fatty acids, inter alia, via PUFA-mediated modulation of the type and amount of miRNAs synthesized by cells involved in the inflammatory process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA Regulation 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Transcriptome-Wide Identification and Prediction of miRNAs and Their Targets in Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis by High-Throughput Sequencing Analysis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 219; doi:10.3390/ijms18010219
Received: 14 December 2016 / Revised: 17 January 2017 / Accepted: 17 January 2017 / Published: 22 January 2017
PDF Full-text (892 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Long dormancy period of seeds limits the large-scale artificial cultivation of the scarce Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis, an important traditional Chinese medicine. Characterizing miRNAs and their targets is crucial to understanding the role of miRNAs during seed dormancy in this species. Considering
[...] Read more.
Long dormancy period of seeds limits the large-scale artificial cultivation of the scarce Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis, an important traditional Chinese medicine. Characterizing miRNAs and their targets is crucial to understanding the role of miRNAs during seed dormancy in this species. Considering the limited genome information of this species, we first sequenced and assembled the transcriptome data of dormant seeds and their seed coats as the reference genome. A total of 146,671 unigenes with an average length of 923 bp were identified and showed functional diversity based on different annotation methods. Two small RNA libraries from respective seeds and seed coats were sequenced and the combining data indicates that 263 conserved miRNAs belonging to at least 83 families and 768 novel miRNAs in 1174 transcripts were found. The annotations of the predicted putative targets of miRNAs suggest that these miRNAs were mainly involved in the cell, metabolism and genetic information processing by direct and indirect regulation patterns in dormant seeds of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Therefore, we provide the first known miRNA profiles and their targets, which will assist with further study of the molecular mechanism of seed dormancy in P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA Regulation 2017)
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Open AccessArticle MicroRNA-29a Alleviates Bile Duct Ligation Exacerbation of Hepatic Fibrosis in Mice through Epigenetic Control of Methyltransferases
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 192; doi:10.3390/ijms18010192
Received: 5 December 2016 / Revised: 10 January 2017 / Accepted: 13 January 2017 / Published: 18 January 2017
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Abstract
MicroRNA-29 (miR-29) is found to modulate hepatic stellate cells’ (HSCs) activation and, thereby, reduces liver fibrosis pathogenesis. Histone methyltransferase regulation of epigenetic reactions reportedly participates in hepatic fibrosis. This study is undertaken to investigate the miR-29a regulation of the methyltransferase signaling and epigenetic
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MicroRNA-29 (miR-29) is found to modulate hepatic stellate cells’ (HSCs) activation and, thereby, reduces liver fibrosis pathogenesis. Histone methyltransferase regulation of epigenetic reactions reportedly participates in hepatic fibrosis. This study is undertaken to investigate the miR-29a regulation of the methyltransferase signaling and epigenetic program in hepatic fibrosis progression. miR-29a transgenic mice (miR-29aTg mice) and wild-type littermates were subjected to bile duct-ligation (BDL) to develop cholestatic liver fibrosis. Primary HSCs were transfected with a miR-29a mimic and antisense inhibitor. Profibrogenic gene expression, histone methyltransferases and global genetic methylation were probed with real-time quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemical stain, Western blot and ELISA. Hepatic tissue in miR-29aTg mice displayed weak fibrotic matrix as evidenced by Sirius Red staining concomitant with low fibrotic matrix collagen 1α1 expression within affected tissues compared to the wild-type mice. miR-29a overexpression reduced the BDL exaggeration of methyltransferases, DNMT1, DNMT3b and SET domain containing 1A (SET1A) expression. It also elevated phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) signaling within liver tissue. In vitro, miR-29a mimic transfection lowered collagen 1α1, DNMT1, DNMT3b and SET1A expression in HSCs. Gain of miR-29a signaling resulted in DNA hypomethylation and high PTEN expression. This study shines a new light on miR-29a inhibition of methyltransferase, a protective effect to maintain the DNA hypomethylation state that decreases fibrogenic activities in HSC. These robust analyses also highlight the miR-29a regulation of epigenetic actions to ameliorate excessive fibrosis during cholestatic liver fibrosis development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA Regulation 2017)
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Open AccessArticle miR-30e-5p and miR-15a Synergistically Regulate Fatty Acid Metabolism in Goat Mammary Epithelial Cells via LRP6 and YAP1
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1909; doi:10.3390/ijms17111909
Received: 31 August 2016 / Revised: 1 November 2016 / Accepted: 9 November 2016 / Published: 16 November 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2886 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
MicroRNA (miRNA) regulates the expression of genes and influences a series of biological processes, including fatty acid metabolism. We screened the expression of miRNA in goat mammary glands during peak-lactation and non-lactating (“dry”) periods, and performed an in vitro study with goat mammary
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MicroRNA (miRNA) regulates the expression of genes and influences a series of biological processes, including fatty acid metabolism. We screened the expression of miRNA in goat mammary glands during peak-lactation and non-lactating (“dry”) periods, and performed an in vitro study with goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC) prior to sequencing analysis. Results illustrated that miR-30e-5p and miR-15a were highly expressed. Utilizing a luciferase reporter assay and Western blot, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6) and Yes associated protein 1 (YAP1) genes were demonstrated to be a target of miR-30e-5p and miR-15a in GMEC. Moreover, we demonstrated that the overexpression of miR-30e-5p and miR-15a in GMEC promoted fat metabolism while their knockdown impaired fat metabolism. These findings extend the discovery of a key role of miR-30e-5p and miR-15a in mediating adipocyte differentiation by suggesting a role in promoting milk fat synthesis. In conclusion, our findings indicate that miR-30e-5p, together with miR-15a, represses expression of LRP6 and promotes fat metabolism in GMEC. The data expanded our knowledge on the function of miRNAs in milk fat metabolism and synthesis in ruminant mammary cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA Regulation 2017)
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Open AccessArticle miR-92a-3p Exerts Various Effects in Glioma and Glioma Stem-Like Cells Specifically Targeting CDH1/β-Catenin and Notch-1/Akt Signaling Pathways
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1799; doi:10.3390/ijms17111799
Received: 5 September 2016 / Revised: 18 October 2016 / Accepted: 21 October 2016 / Published: 27 October 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5114 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are implicated in the regulation of tumor progression and stemness of cancer stem-like cells. Recently, miR-92a-3p was reported to be up-regulated in human glioma samples. Nevertheless, the precise role of miR-92a-3p in glioma cells and glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) has not
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are implicated in the regulation of tumor progression and stemness of cancer stem-like cells. Recently, miR-92a-3p was reported to be up-regulated in human glioma samples. Nevertheless, the precise role of miR-92a-3p in glioma cells and glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) has not been fully elucidated. It is necessary to clarify the function of miR-92a-3p in glioma and GSCs to develop novel therapeutic approaches for glioma patients. In the present study, we applied methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium (MTT) assay and Transwell assay to measure the proliferation rate and metastatic potential of glioma cells. Meanwhile, the self-renewal ability of GSCs was detected by tumor sphere formation assay. The results revealed that down-regulation of miR-92a-3p suppressed the glioma cell malignancy in vitro. Moreover, knockdown of miR-92a-3p led to a reduction of tumorgenesis in vivo. Interestingly, we also observed that up-regulation of miR-92a-3p could inhibit the stemness of GSCs. Subsequent mechanistic investigation indicated that cadherin 1 (CDH1)/β-catenin signaling and Notch-1/Akt signaling were the downstream pathways of miR-92a-3p in glioma cells and GSCs, respectively. These results suggest that miR-92a-3p plays different roles in glioma cells and GSCs through regulating different signaling pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA Regulation 2017)
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Open AccessArticle MicroRNA-944 Affects Cell Growth by Targeting EPHA7 in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(10), 1493; doi:10.3390/ijms17101493
Received: 25 July 2016 / Revised: 29 August 2016 / Accepted: 30 August 2016 / Published: 26 September 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2770 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have critical roles in lung tumorigenesis and development. To determine aberrantly expressed miRNAs involved in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and investigate pathophysiological functions and mechanisms, we firstly carried out small RNA deep sequencing in NSCLC cell lines (EPLC-32M1, A549 and
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have critical roles in lung tumorigenesis and development. To determine aberrantly expressed miRNAs involved in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and investigate pathophysiological functions and mechanisms, we firstly carried out small RNA deep sequencing in NSCLC cell lines (EPLC-32M1, A549 and 801D) and a human immortalized cell line 16HBE, we then studied miRNA function by cell proliferation and apoptosis. cDNA microarray, luciferase reporter assay and miRNA transfection were used to investigate interaction between the miRNA and target gene. miR-944 was significantly down-regulated in NSCLC and had many putative targets. Moreover, the forced expression of miR-944 significantly inhibited the proliferation of NSCLC cells in vitro. By integrating mRNA expression data and miR-944-target prediction, we disclosed that EPHA7 was a potential target of miR-944, which was further verified by luciferase reporter assay and microRNA transfection. Our data indicated that miR-944 targets EPHA7 in NSCLC and regulates NSCLC cell proliferation, which may offer a new mechanism underlying the development and progression of NSCLC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA Regulation 2017)
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Open AccessArticle MicroRNA Transcriptome of Poly I:C-Stimulated Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Reveals Evidence for MicroRNAs in Regulating Host Response to RNA Viruses in Pigs
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(10), 1601; doi:10.3390/ijms17101601
Received: 2 August 2016 / Revised: 6 September 2016 / Accepted: 13 September 2016 / Published: 22 September 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1353 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are one family of small noncoding RNAs that function to modulate the activity of specific mRNA targets in animals. To understand the role of miRNAs in regulating genes involved in the host immune response to RNA viruses, we profiled and characterized
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are one family of small noncoding RNAs that function to modulate the activity of specific mRNA targets in animals. To understand the role of miRNAs in regulating genes involved in the host immune response to RNA viruses, we profiled and characterized the miRNAs of swine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulated with poly I:C, a synthetic dsRNA analog, by miRNA-sequencing (miRNA-seq). We identified a total of 905 miRNAs, of which 503 miRNAs were firstly exploited herein with no annotation in the latest miRBase 21.0. Expression analysis demonstrated that poly I:C stimulation can elicit significantly differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs in Dapulian (n = 20), one Chinese indigenous breed, as well as Landrace (n = 23). By integrating the mRNA expression profiles of the same sample with miRNA profiles, we carried out function analyses of the target genes of these DE miRNAs, with the results indicating that target genes were most enriched in some immune-related pathways and gene ontology (GO) terms, suggesting that DE miRNAs play an important role in the regulation of host to poly I:C stimulation. Furthermore, we also detected 43 and 61 significantly DE miRNAs between the two breeds in the control sample groups and poly I:C stimulation groups, respectively, which may be involved in regulation of the different characteristics of the two breeds. This study describes for the first time the PBMC miRNA transcriptomic response to poly I:C stimulation in pigs, which not only contributes to a broad view of the pig miRNAome but improves our understanding of miRNA function in regulating host immune response to RNA viruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA Regulation 2017)
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Open AccessArticle MiR-132-3p Regulates the Osteogenic Differentiation of Thoracic Ligamentum Flavum Cells by Inhibiting Multiple Osteogenesis-Related Genes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1370; doi:10.3390/ijms17081370
Received: 18 July 2016 / Revised: 8 August 2016 / Accepted: 16 August 2016 / Published: 20 August 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4327 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) is a disorder of heterotopic ossification of spinal ligaments and is the main cause of thoracic spinal canal stenosis. Previous studies suggested that miR-132-3p negatively regulates osteoblast differentiation. However, whether miR-132-3p is involved in the process of
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Ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) is a disorder of heterotopic ossification of spinal ligaments and is the main cause of thoracic spinal canal stenosis. Previous studies suggested that miR-132-3p negatively regulates osteoblast differentiation. However, whether miR-132-3p is involved in the process of OLF has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effect of miR-132-3p and its target genes forkhead box O1 (FOXO1), growth differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) and SRY-box 6 (SOX6) on the osteogenic differentiation of ligamentum flavum (LF) cells. We demonstrated that miR-132-3p was down-regulated during the osteogenic differentiation of LF cells and negatively regulated the osteoblast differentiation. Further, miR-132-3p targeted FOXO1, GDF5 and SOX6 and down-regulated the protein expression of these genes. Meanwhile, FOXO1, GDF5 and SOX6 were up-regulated after osteogenic differentiation and the down-regulation of endogenous FOXO1, GDF5 or SOX6 suppressed the osteogenic differentiation of LF cells. In addition, we also found FOXO1, GDF5 and SOX6 expression in the ossification front of OLF samples. Overall, these results suggest that miR-132-3p inhibits the osteogenic differentiation of LF cells by targeting FOXO1, GDF5 and SOX6. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA Regulation 2017)
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Open AccessArticle MicroRNA-331-3p Suppresses Cervical Cancer Cell Proliferation and E6/E7 Expression by Targeting NRP2
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1351; doi:10.3390/ijms17081351
Received: 23 July 2016 / Revised: 11 August 2016 / Accepted: 12 August 2016 / Published: 18 August 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (4901 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is involved in the development and progression of various types of cancers. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-331-3p in cell proliferation and the expression of keratinocyte differentiation markers of uterine cervical cancer cells. Moreover, we
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Aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is involved in the development and progression of various types of cancers. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-331-3p in cell proliferation and the expression of keratinocyte differentiation markers of uterine cervical cancer cells. Moreover, we evaluated whether neuropilin 2 (NRP2) are putative target molecules that regulate the human papillomavirus (HPV) related oncoproteins E6 and E7. Cell proliferation in the human cervical cancer cell lines SKG-II, HCS-2, and HeLa was assessed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt (MTS) assay. Cellular apoptosis was measured using the TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and Annexin V assays. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to measure the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of the NRP2, E6, E7, p63, and involucrin (IVL) genes. A functional assay for cell growth was performed using cell cycle analyses. Overexpression of miR-331-3p inhibited cell proliferation, and induced G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis in SKG-II, HCS-2 and HeLa cells. The luciferase reporter assay of the NRP2 3′-untranslated region revealed the direct regulation of NRP2 by miR-331-3p. Gene expression analyses using quantitative RT-PCR in SKG-II, HCS-2, and HeLa cells overexpressing miR-331-3p or suppressing NRP2 revealed down-regulation of E6, E7, and p63 mRNA and up-regulation of IVL mRNA. Moreover, miR-331-3p overexpression was suppressed NRP2 expression in protein level. We showed that miR-331-3p and NRP2 were key effectors of cell proliferation by regulating the cell cycle, apoptosis. NRP-2 also regulates the expression of E6/E7 and keratinocyte differentiation markers. Our findings suggest that miR-331-3p has an important role in regulating cervical cancer cell proliferation, and that miR-331-3p may contribute to keratinocyte differentiation through NRP2 suppression. miR-331-3p and NRP2 may contribute to anti-cancer effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA Regulation 2017)
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Open AccessArticle MicroRNA-155 Mediates Augmented CD40 Expression in Bone Marrow Derived Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells in Symptomatic Lupus-Prone NZB/W F1 Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1282; doi:10.3390/ijms17081282
Received: 6 July 2016 / Revised: 23 July 2016 / Accepted: 2 August 2016 / Published: 6 August 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2359 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic multi-organ autoimmune disease characterized by hyperactivated immune responses to self-antigens and persistent systemic inflammation. Previously, we reported abnormalities in circulating and bone marrow (BM)-derived plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) from SLE patients. Here, we aim to seek
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Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic multi-organ autoimmune disease characterized by hyperactivated immune responses to self-antigens and persistent systemic inflammation. Previously, we reported abnormalities in circulating and bone marrow (BM)-derived plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) from SLE patients. Here, we aim to seek for potential regulators that mediate functional aberrations of pDCs in SLE. BM-derived pDCs from NZB/W F1 mice before and after the disease onset were compared for toll-like receptor (TLR) induced responses and microRNA profile changes. While pDCs derived from symptomatic mice were phenotypically comparable to pre-symptomatic ones, functionally they exhibited hypersensitivity to TLR7 but not TLR9 stimulation, as represented by the elevated upregulation of CD40, CD86 and MHC class II molecules upon R837 stimulation. Upregulated induction of miR-155 in symptomatic pDCs following TLR7 stimulation was observed. Transfection of miR-155 mimics in pre-symptomatic pDCs induced an augmented expression of Cd40, which is consistent with the increased CD40 expression in symptomatic pDCs. Overall, our results provide evidence for miR-155-mediated regulation in pDC functional abnormalities in SLE. Findings from this study contribute to a better understanding of SLE pathogenesis and ignite future interests in evaluating the molecular regulation in autoimmunity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA Regulation 2017)
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Open AccessReview MicroRNA-34a: A Versatile Regulator of Myriads of Targets in Different Cancers
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(10), 2089; doi:10.3390/ijms18102089
Received: 30 August 2017 / Revised: 24 September 2017 / Accepted: 25 September 2017 / Published: 2 October 2017
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Abstract
MicroRNA-34a (miR-34a) is a tumor suppressor that has attracted considerable attention in recent years. It modulates cancer cell invasion, metastasis, and drug resistance, and has also been evaluated as a diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarker. A number of targets of miR-34a have been identified,
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MicroRNA-34a (miR-34a) is a tumor suppressor that has attracted considerable attention in recent years. It modulates cancer cell invasion, metastasis, and drug resistance, and has also been evaluated as a diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarker. A number of targets of miR-34a have been identified, including some other non-coding RNAs, and it is believed that the modulation of these myriads of targets underlines the versatile role of miR-34a in cancer progression and pathogenesis. Seemingly appealing results from preclinical studies have advocated the testing of miR-34a in clinical trials. However, the results obtained are not very encouraging and there is a need to re-interpret how miR-34a behaves in a context dependent manner in different cancers. In this review, we have attempted to summarize the most recent evidence related to the regulation of different genes and non-coding RNAs by miR-34a and the advances in the field of nanotechnology for the targeted delivery of miR-34a-based therapeutics and mimics. With the emergence of data that contradicts miR-34a’s tumor suppressive function, it is important to understand miR-34a’s precise functioning, with the aim to establish its role in personalized medicine and to apply this knowledge for the identification of individual patients that are likely to benefit from miR-34a-based therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA Regulation 2017)
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Open AccessReview Intestinal and Circulating MicroRNAs in Coeliac Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(9), 1907; doi:10.3390/ijms18091907
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 23 August 2017 / Accepted: 24 August 2017 / Published: 6 September 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1672 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and play a key role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune and gastrointestinal diseases. Previous studies have revealed that miRNAs are dysregulated in intestinal biopsies of patients affected by coeliac
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and play a key role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune and gastrointestinal diseases. Previous studies have revealed that miRNAs are dysregulated in intestinal biopsies of patients affected by coeliac disease (CD). Combined bioinformatics analyses of miRNA expression profiles and mRNA target genes as classified by Gene Ontology, are powerful tools to investigate the functional role of miRNAs in coeliac disease. However, little is still known about the function of circulating miRNAs, their expression level compared to tissue miRNAs, and whether the mechanisms of post-transcriptional regulation are the same of tissue miRNAs. In any case, if we assume that a cell-cell communication process has to occur, and that circulating miRNAs are delivered to recipient cells, we can derive useful information by performing target predictions. Interestingly, all of the mRNA targets of dysregulated miRNAs reported in the literature (i.e., miR-31-5p, miR-192, miR-194, miR-449a and miR-638) belong to several important biological processes, such as Wnt signaling, cell proliferation and differentiation, and adherens junction pathways. Although we think that these predictions have to be necessarily confirmed by “wet-lab” data, the miRNAs dysregulated during the development of CD could be potentially involved in the pathogenesis of coeliac disease and their correlation with circulating miRNAs offers new possibilities to use them as disease biomarkers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA Regulation 2017)
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Open AccessReview Mechanosensitive miRNAs and Bone Formation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(8), 1684; doi:10.3390/ijms18081684
Received: 8 June 2017 / Revised: 25 July 2017 / Accepted: 28 July 2017 / Published: 2 August 2017
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Abstract
Mechanical stimuli are required for the maintenance of skeletal integrity and bone mass. An increasing amount of evidence indicates that multiple regulators (e.g., hormone, cytoskeleton proteins and signaling pathways) are involved in the mechanical stimuli modulating the activities of osteogenic cells and the
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Mechanical stimuli are required for the maintenance of skeletal integrity and bone mass. An increasing amount of evidence indicates that multiple regulators (e.g., hormone, cytoskeleton proteins and signaling pathways) are involved in the mechanical stimuli modulating the activities of osteogenic cells and the process of bone formation. Significantly, recent studies have showed that several microRNAs (miRNAs) were sensitive to various mechanical stimuli and played a crucial role in osteogenic differentiation and bone formation. However, the functional roles and further mechanisms of mechanosensitive miRNAs in bone formation are not yet completely understood. This review highlights the roles of mechanosensitive miRNAs in osteogenic differentiation and bone formation and underlines their potential therapeutic application for bone loss induced by the altering of mechanical stimuli. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA Regulation 2017)
Open AccessReview miRNAs in Normal and Malignant Hematopoiesis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1495; doi:10.3390/ijms18071495
Received: 1 May 2017 / Revised: 21 June 2017 / Accepted: 25 June 2017 / Published: 11 July 2017
PDF Full-text (460 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lineage specification is primarily regulated at the transcriptional level and lineage-specific transcription factors determine cell fates. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 18–24 nucleotide-long non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally decrease the translation of target mRNAs and are essential for many cellular functions. miRNAs also regulate lineage specification
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Lineage specification is primarily regulated at the transcriptional level and lineage-specific transcription factors determine cell fates. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 18–24 nucleotide-long non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally decrease the translation of target mRNAs and are essential for many cellular functions. miRNAs also regulate lineage specification during hematopoiesis. This review highlights the roles of miRNAs in B-cell development and malignancies, and discusses how miRNA expression profiles correlate with disease prognoses and phenotypes. We also discuss the potential for miRNAs as therapeutic targets and diagnostic tools for B-cell malignancies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA Regulation 2017)
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Open AccessReview Coordinated Actions of MicroRNAs with other Epigenetic Factors Regulate Skeletal Muscle Development and Adaptation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 840; doi:10.3390/ijms18040840
Received: 10 March 2017 / Revised: 4 April 2017 / Accepted: 13 April 2017 / Published: 15 April 2017
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Abstract
Epigenetics plays a pivotal role in regulating gene expression in development, in response to cellular stress or in disease states, in virtually all cell types. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, non-coding RNA molecules that mediate RNA silencing and regulate gene expression. miRNAs were discovered
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Epigenetics plays a pivotal role in regulating gene expression in development, in response to cellular stress or in disease states, in virtually all cell types. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, non-coding RNA molecules that mediate RNA silencing and regulate gene expression. miRNAs were discovered in 1993 and have been extensively studied ever since. They can be expressed in a tissue-specific manner and play a crucial role in tissue development and many biological processes. miRNAs are responsible for changes in the cell epigenome because of their ability to modulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. Recently, numerous studies have shown that miRNAs and other epigenetic factors can regulate each other or cooperate in regulating several biological processes. On the one hand, the expression of some miRNAs is silenced by DNA methylation, and histone modifications have been demonstrated to modulate miRNA expression in many cell types or disease states. On the other hand, miRNAs can directly target epigenetic factors, such as DNA methyltransferases or histone deacetylases, thus regulating chromatin structure. Moreover, several studies have reported coordinated actions between miRNAs and other epigenetic mechanisms to reinforce the regulation of gene expression. This paper reviews multiple interactions between miRNAs and epigenetic factors in skeletal muscle development and in response to stimuli or disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA Regulation 2017)
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Open AccessReview ADAR1 and MicroRNA; A Hidden Crosstalk in Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 799; doi:10.3390/ijms18040799
Received: 4 March 2017 / Revised: 4 April 2017 / Accepted: 6 April 2017 / Published: 11 April 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1117 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The evolution of cancer cells is believed to be dependent on genetic or epigenetic alterations. However, this concept has recently been challenged by another mode of nucleotide alteration, RNA editing, which is frequently up-regulated in cancer. RNA editing is a biochemical process in
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The evolution of cancer cells is believed to be dependent on genetic or epigenetic alterations. However, this concept has recently been challenged by another mode of nucleotide alteration, RNA editing, which is frequently up-regulated in cancer. RNA editing is a biochemical process in which either Adenosine or Cytosine is deaminated by a group of RNA editing enzymes including ADAR (Adenosine deaminase; RNA specific) or APOBEC3B (Apolipoprotein B mRNA Editing Enzyme Catalytic Subunit 3B). The result of RNA editing is usually adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) or cytidine to uridine (C-to-U) transition, which can affect protein coding, RNA stability, splicing and microRNA-target interactions. The functional impact of these alterations is largely unclear and is a subject of extensive research. In the present review, we will specifically focus on the influence of ADARs on carcinogenesis via the regulation of microRNA processing and functioning. This follows a brief review of the current knowledge of properties of ADAR enzyme, RNA editing, and microRNA processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA Regulation 2017)
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Open AccessReview The Role of MicroRNAs in Myocardial Infarction: From Molecular Mechanism to Clinical Application
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 745; doi:10.3390/ijms18040745
Received: 26 January 2017 / Revised: 22 March 2017 / Accepted: 27 March 2017 / Published: 31 March 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1246 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small single-stranded and highly conserved non-coding RNAs, which are closely linked to cardiac disorders such as myocardial infarction (MI), cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, and heart failure. A growing number of studies have demonstrated that miRNAs determine the fate of
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small single-stranded and highly conserved non-coding RNAs, which are closely linked to cardiac disorders such as myocardial infarction (MI), cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, and heart failure. A growing number of studies have demonstrated that miRNAs determine the fate of the heart by regulating cardiac cell death and regeneration after MI. A deep understanding of the pathophysiology of miRNA dependent regulatory pathways in these processes is required. The role of miRNAs as diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic targets also needs to be explored in order to utilize them in clinical settings. This review summarizes the role of miRNAs in myocardial infarction and focuses mainly on their influence on cardiomyocyte regeneration and cell death including apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy. In addition, the targets of pro- and anti-MI miRNAs are comparatively described. In particular, the possibilities of miRNA-based diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for myocardial infarction are discussed in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA Regulation 2017)
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Open AccessReview MicroRNA-146b: A Novel Biomarker and Therapeutic Target for Human Papillary Thyroid Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 636; doi:10.3390/ijms18030636
Received: 26 January 2017 / Revised: 6 March 2017 / Accepted: 8 March 2017 / Published: 15 March 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (498 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the most common tumor subtype of thyroid cancer. However, not all PTCs are responsive to current surgical and radioiodine treatment. The well-established clinical prognostic factors include tumor size, lymph node/distal metastasis, and extrathyroidal invasion. The RET/PTC-RAS
[...] Read more.
Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the most common tumor subtype of thyroid cancer. However, not all PTCs are responsive to current surgical and radioiodine treatment. The well-established clinical prognostic factors include tumor size, lymph node/distal metastasis, and extrathyroidal invasion. The RET/PTC-RAS-BRAF linear molecular signaling cascade is known to mediate PTC pathogenesis. However, whether presence of BRAF mutation, the most common genetic alteration in PTC, can affect PTC behavior and prognosis is controversial. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been labeled as promising molecular prognostic markers in several tumor types. Our recent studies demonstrated that microRNA-146b (miR-146b) deregulation is associated with PTC aggressiveness and prognosis. Here we summarize the current knowledge related to the functional roles, regulated target genes, and clinical applications of miR-146b in PTC and discuss how these studies provide insights into the key role of miR-146b as an oncogenic regulator promoting cellular transformation as well as a prognosis marker for tumor recurrence in PTC. In conjunction with the current perspectives on miRNAs in a wide variety of human cancers, this review will hopefully translate these updated findings on miR-146b into more comprehensive diagnostic or prognostic information regarding treatment in PTC patients before surgical intervention and follow up strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA Regulation 2017)
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Open AccessReview Use of Mature miRNA Strand Selection in miRNAs Families in Cervical Cancer Development
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 407; doi:10.3390/ijms18020407
Received: 10 January 2017 / Revised: 3 February 2017 / Accepted: 8 February 2017 / Published: 14 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4351 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aberrant miRNA expression is well recognized as a cancer hallmark, nevertheless miRNA function and expression does not always correlate in patients tissues and cell lines studies. In addition to this issue, miRNA strand usage conduces to increased cell signaling pathways modulation diversifying cellular
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Aberrant miRNA expression is well recognized as a cancer hallmark, nevertheless miRNA function and expression does not always correlate in patients tissues and cell lines studies. In addition to this issue, miRNA strand usage conduces to increased cell signaling pathways modulation diversifying cellular processes regulation. In cervical cancer, 20 miRNA families are involved in carcinogenesis induction and development to this moment. These families have 5p and 3p strands with different nucleotide (nt) chain sizes. In general, mature 5p strands are larger: two miRNAs of 24 nt, 24 miRNAs of 23 nt, 35 miRNAs of 22 nt and three miRNAs of 21 nt. On the other hand, the 3p strands lengths observed are: seven miRNAs of 23 nt, 50 miRNAs of 22 nt, six miRNAs of 21 nt and four miRNAs of 20 nt. Based on the analysis of the 20 miRNA families associated with cervical cancer, 67 3p strands and 65 5p strands are selected suggesting selectivity and specificity mechanisms regulating cell processes like proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion, metabolism and Warburg effect. The insight reviewed here could be used in the miRNA based therapy, diagnosis and prognosis approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA Regulation 2017)
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Open AccessReview Plant MicroRNAs—Novel Players in Natural Medicine?
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 9; doi:10.3390/ijms18010009
Received: 16 November 2016 / Revised: 14 December 2016 / Accepted: 16 December 2016 / Published: 22 December 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (251 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of small non-coding RNAs that act as efficient gene expression regulators and thus play many important roles in living organisms. Due to their involvement in several known human pathological and pathogenic states, miRNA molecules have become an important
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of small non-coding RNAs that act as efficient gene expression regulators and thus play many important roles in living organisms. Due to their involvement in several known human pathological and pathogenic states, miRNA molecules have become an important issue in medicine and gained the attention of scientists from the pharmaceutical industry. In recent few years, a growing number of studies have provided evidence that miRNAs may be transferred from one species to another and regulate gene expression in the recipients’ cells. The most intriguing results revealed that stable miRNAs derived from food plants may enter the mammals’ circulatory system and, after reaching the target, inhibit the production of specific mammalian protein. Part of the scientific community has perceived this as an attractive hypothesis that may provide a foundation for novel therapeutic approaches. In turn, others are convinced about the “false positive” effect of performed experiments from which the mentioned results were achieved. In this article, we review the recent literature that provides evidence (from both fronts) of dietary, plant miRNA uptake and functionality in various consumers. Additionally, we discuss possible miRNA transport mechanisms from plant food sources to human cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA Regulation 2017)
Open AccessReview Tools for Sequence-Based miRNA Target Prediction: What to Choose?
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(12), 1987; doi:10.3390/ijms17121987
Received: 14 September 2016 / Revised: 21 November 2016 / Accepted: 22 November 2016 / Published: 9 December 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1038 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are defined as small non-coding RNAs ~22 nt in length. They regulate gene expression at a post-transcriptional level through complementary base pairing with the target mRNA, leading to mRNA degradation and therefore blocking translation. In the last decade, the dysfunction of
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are defined as small non-coding RNAs ~22 nt in length. They regulate gene expression at a post-transcriptional level through complementary base pairing with the target mRNA, leading to mRNA degradation and therefore blocking translation. In the last decade, the dysfunction of miRNAs has been related to the development and progression of many diseases. Currently, researchers need a method to identify precisely the miRNA targets, prior to applying experimental approaches that allow a better functional characterization of miRNAs in biological processes and can thus predict their effects. Computational prediction tools provide a rapid method to identify putative miRNA targets. However, since a large number of tools for the prediction of miRNA:mRNA interactions have been developed, all with different algorithms, the biological researcher sometimes does not know which is the best choice for his study and many times does not understand the bioinformatic basis of these tools. This review describes the biological fundamentals of these prediction tools, characterizes the main sequence-based algorithms, and offers some insights into their uses by biologists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA Regulation 2017)
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Open AccessReview Function and Regulation of MicroRNAs and Their Potential as Biomarkers in Paediatric Liver Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1795; doi:10.3390/ijms17111795
Received: 12 September 2016 / Revised: 18 October 2016 / Accepted: 20 October 2016 / Published: 27 October 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2129 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs involved in biological and pathological processes of every cell type, including liver cells. Transcribed from specific genes, miRNA precursors are processed in the cytoplasm into mature miRNAs and as part of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) complex
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs involved in biological and pathological processes of every cell type, including liver cells. Transcribed from specific genes, miRNA precursors are processed in the cytoplasm into mature miRNAs and as part of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) complex binds to messenger RNA (mRNA) by imperfect complementarity. This leads to the regulation of gene expression at a post-transcriptional level. The function of a number of different miRNAs in fibrogenesis associated with the progression of chronic liver disease has recently been elucidated. Furthermore, miRNAs have been shown to be both disease-and tissue-specific and are stable in the circulation, which has led to increasing investigation on their utility as biomarkers for the diagnosis of chronic liver diseases, including those in children. Here, we review the current knowledge on the biogenesis of microRNA, the mechanisms of translational repression and the use of miRNA as circulatory biomarkers in chronic paediatric liver diseases including cystic fibrosis associated liver disease, biliary atresia and viral hepatitis B. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA Regulation 2017)
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Open AccessReview MicroRNA in Control of Gene Expression: An Overview of Nuclear Functions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(10), 1712; doi:10.3390/ijms17101712
Received: 26 August 2016 / Revised: 4 October 2016 / Accepted: 7 October 2016 / Published: 13 October 2016
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (1968 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The finding that small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are able to control gene expression in a sequence specific manner has had a massive impact on biology. Recent improvements in high throughput sequencing and computational prediction methods have allowed the discovery and classification of several
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The finding that small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are able to control gene expression in a sequence specific manner has had a massive impact on biology. Recent improvements in high throughput sequencing and computational prediction methods have allowed the discovery and classification of several types of ncRNAs. Based on their precursor structures, biogenesis pathways and modes of action, ncRNAs are classified as small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs), PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs or esiRNAs), promoter associate RNAs (pRNAs), small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) and sno-derived RNAs. Among these, miRNAs appear as important cytoplasmic regulators of gene expression. miRNAs act as post-transcriptional regulators of their messenger RNA (mRNA) targets via mRNA degradation and/or translational repression. However, it is becoming evident that miRNAs also have specific nuclear functions. Among these, the most studied and debated activity is the miRNA-guided transcriptional control of gene expression. Although available data detail quite precisely the effectors of this activity, the mechanisms by which miRNAs identify their gene targets to control transcription are still a matter of debate. Here, we focus on nuclear functions of miRNAs and on alternative mechanisms of target recognition, at the promoter lavel, by miRNAs in carrying out transcriptional gene silencing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA Regulation 2017)
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Open AccessReview Circulating MicroRNAs as Potential Biomarkers of Exercise Response
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(10), 1553; doi:10.3390/ijms17101553
Received: 6 July 2016 / Revised: 6 September 2016 / Accepted: 6 September 2016 / Published: 5 October 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (664 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Systematic physical activity increases physical fitness and exercise capacity that lead to the improvement of health status and athletic performance. Considerable effort is devoted to identifying new biomarkers capable of evaluating exercise performance capacity and progress in training, early detection of overtraining, and
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Systematic physical activity increases physical fitness and exercise capacity that lead to the improvement of health status and athletic performance. Considerable effort is devoted to identifying new biomarkers capable of evaluating exercise performance capacity and progress in training, early detection of overtraining, and monitoring health-related adaptation changes. Recent advances in OMICS technologies have opened new opportunities in the detection of genetic, epigenetic and transcriptomic biomarkers. Very promising are mainly small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs). miRNAs post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression by binding to mRNA and causing its degradation or inhibiting translation. A growing body of evidence suggests that miRNAs affect many processes and play a crucial role not only in cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis, but also affect extracellular matrix composition and maintaining processes of homeostasis. A number of studies have shown changes in distribution profiles of circulating miRNAs (c-miRNAs) associated with various diseases and disorders as well as in samples taken under physiological conditions such as pregnancy or physical exercise. This overview aims to summarize the current knowledge related to the response of blood c-miRNAs profiles to different modes of exercise and to highlight their potential application as a novel class of biomarkers of physical performance capacity and training adaptation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA Regulation 2017)
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