Next Article in Journal
Rack1 Mediates the Interaction of P-Glycoprotein with Anxa2 and Regulates Migration and Invasion of Multidrug-Resistant Breast Cancer Cells
Next Article in Special Issue
Function and Regulation of MicroRNAs and Their Potential as Biomarkers in Paediatric Liver Disease
Previous Article in Journal
The Importance of Patient-Specific Factors for Hepatic Drug Response and Toxicity
Previous Article in Special Issue
Circulating MicroRNAs as Potential Biomarkers of Exercise Response
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(10), 1712; doi:10.3390/ijms17101712

MicroRNA in Control of Gene Expression: An Overview of Nuclear Functions

Department of Cellular Biotechnologies and Hematology, University of Rome Sapienza, Rome 00179, Italy
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Y-h. Taguchi
Received: 26 August 2016 / Revised: 4 October 2016 / Accepted: 7 October 2016 / Published: 13 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue microRNA Regulation 2017)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1968 KB, uploaded 13 October 2016]   |  

Abstract

The finding that small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are able to control gene expression in a sequence specific manner has had a massive impact on biology. Recent improvements in high throughput sequencing and computational prediction methods have allowed the discovery and classification of several types of ncRNAs. Based on their precursor structures, biogenesis pathways and modes of action, ncRNAs are classified as small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs), PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs or esiRNAs), promoter associate RNAs (pRNAs), small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) and sno-derived RNAs. Among these, miRNAs appear as important cytoplasmic regulators of gene expression. miRNAs act as post-transcriptional regulators of their messenger RNA (mRNA) targets via mRNA degradation and/or translational repression. However, it is becoming evident that miRNAs also have specific nuclear functions. Among these, the most studied and debated activity is the miRNA-guided transcriptional control of gene expression. Although available data detail quite precisely the effectors of this activity, the mechanisms by which miRNAs identify their gene targets to control transcription are still a matter of debate. Here, we focus on nuclear functions of miRNAs and on alternative mechanisms of target recognition, at the promoter lavel, by miRNAs in carrying out transcriptional gene silencing. View Full-Text
Keywords: microRNA; miRNA inducing silencing complex (miRISC); transcriptional control; epigenetics; nuclear function microRNA; miRNA inducing silencing complex (miRISC); transcriptional control; epigenetics; nuclear function
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Catalanotto, C.; Cogoni, C.; Zardo, G. MicroRNA in Control of Gene Expression: An Overview of Nuclear Functions. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1712.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top