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Sustainability, Volume 7, Issue 4 (April 2015), Pages 3515-4782

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Open AccessArticle Estimating the Total Economic Value of Cultivated Flower Land in Taiwan
Sustainability 2015, 7(4), 4764-4782; https://doi.org/10.3390/su7044764
Received: 10 November 2014 / Revised: 13 April 2015 / Accepted: 15 April 2015 / Published: 21 April 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (797 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many arable land areas have been converted to residential or business uses by Taiwan government authorities, because the low farmland value is associated with the low value of agricultural products. However, agriculture is multifunctional. This study investigates farmland value through Total Economic Value
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Many arable land areas have been converted to residential or business uses by Taiwan government authorities, because the low farmland value is associated with the low value of agricultural products. However, agriculture is multifunctional. This study investigates farmland value through Total Economic Value (TEV) for Tianwei Township, which is Taiwan’s largest floral farmland region. Direct use value measures the floral products’ output value and recreational benefit. Recreational benefit from visitors’ flower sightseeing was measured by the travel cost method (TCM). Option value and non-use value, including bequest value and existence value, measure the residents’ willingness to pay through the double-bounded dichotomous contingent valuation method (CVM). The results show that the total floral products’ output is NT$1.441 billion in 2007, recreational benefit is roughly NT$17.757 billion. The intangible value of option value and non-use values are approximately between NT$5 million to 15 million. Therefore, ignoring various values of farmland might lead to an underestimation of farmland value. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Ecological Footprints and Lifestyle Archetypes: Exploring Dimensions of Consumption and the Transformation Needed to Achieve Urban Sustainability
Sustainability 2015, 7(4), 4747-4763; https://doi.org/10.3390/su7044747
Received: 20 December 2014 / Revised: 15 March 2015 / Accepted: 8 April 2015 / Published: 21 April 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (695 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The global urban transition increasingly positions cities as important influencers in determining sustainability outcomes. Urban sustainability literature tends to focus on the built environment as a solution space for reducing energy and materials demand; however, equally important is the consumption characteristics of the
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The global urban transition increasingly positions cities as important influencers in determining sustainability outcomes. Urban sustainability literature tends to focus on the built environment as a solution space for reducing energy and materials demand; however, equally important is the consumption characteristics of the people who occupy the city. While size of dwelling and motor vehicle ownership are partially influenced by urban form, they are also influenced by cultural and socio-economic characteristics. Dietary choices and purchases of consumable goods are almost entirely driven by the latter. Using international field data that document urban ways of living, I develop lifestyle archetypes coupled with ecological footprint analysis to develop consumption benchmarks in the domains of: food, buildings, consumables, transportation, and water that correspond to various levels of demand on nature’s services. I also explore the dimensions of transformation that would be needed in each of these domains for the per capita consumption patterns of urban dwellers to achieve ecological sustainability. The dimensions of transformation needed commensurate with ecological carrying capacity include: a 73% reduction in household energy use, a 96% reduction in motor vehicle ownership, a 78% reduction in per capita vehicle kilometres travelled, and a 79% reduction in air kilometres travelled. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Urban Development)
Open AccessArticle The Establishment and Application of Environment Sustainability Evaluation Indicators for Ecotourism Environments
Sustainability 2015, 7(4), 4727-4746; https://doi.org/10.3390/su7044727
Received: 10 February 2015 / Revised: 2 April 2015 / Accepted: 15 April 2015 / Published: 21 April 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (772 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Kinmen National Park is the only battle memorial-themed natural resource conservation park in Taiwan. With the rapid growth in tourism, Kinmen National Park faces the challenge of managing with the resulting environmental impact. For this study, we adopted the tourism ecological footprint (TEF)
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Kinmen National Park is the only battle memorial-themed natural resource conservation park in Taiwan. With the rapid growth in tourism, Kinmen National Park faces the challenge of managing with the resulting environmental impact. For this study, we adopted the tourism ecological footprint (TEF) and tourism ecological capacity (TEC) to evaluate the ecological conditions of Kinmen National Park from 2002 to 2011. The empirical results indicated the following findings: (a) TEF increased by 8.03% over 10 years; (b) Regarding the environmental sustainability index (ESI), per capita tourism ecological deficit (PTED) yielded a deficit growth rate of 45.37%. In 2011, the ecological footprint index (EFI) was at Level 4 with 1.16, and the ESI was at Level 3 with 0.495. According to the aforementioned results, with the increased scale of tourism to Kinmen National Park, the pressure that ecological occupancy exerted on the national ecosystem exceeded its ecological capacity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Rescuing Food from the Organics Waste Stream to Feed the Food Insecure: An Economic and Environmental Assessment of Australian Food Rescue Operations Using Environmentally Extended Waste Input-Output Analysis
Sustainability 2015, 7(4), 4707-4726; https://doi.org/10.3390/su7044707
Received: 17 February 2015 / Revised: 8 April 2015 / Accepted: 14 April 2015 / Published: 21 April 2015
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1504 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper we investigate the economic and environmental efficiency of charities and NGO’s “rescuing” food waste, using a 2008 case study of food rescue organisations in Australia. We quantify the tonnages, costs, and environmental impact of food rescued, and then compare food
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In this paper we investigate the economic and environmental efficiency of charities and NGO’s “rescuing” food waste, using a 2008 case study of food rescue organisations in Australia. We quantify the tonnages, costs, and environmental impact of food rescued, and then compare food rescue to other food waste disposal methods composting and landfill. To our knowledge this is the first manuscript to comprehend the psychical flows of charity within an Input-Output framework—treating the charity donations as a waste product. We found that 18,105 tonnes of food waste was rescued, and calculate that food rescue operations generate approximately six kilograms of food waste per tonne of food rescued, at a cost of US$222 per tonne of food rescued. This a lower cost than purchasing a tonne of comparable edible food at market value. We also found that per US dollar spent on food rescue, edible food to the value of US$5.71 (1863 calories) was rescued. Likewise, every US dollar spent on food rescue redirected food that represented 6.6 m3 of embodied water, 40.13 MJ of embodied energy, and 7.5 kilograms of embodied greenhouse gasses (CO2 equivalents) from being sent to landfill or composting, and into mouths of the food insecure. We find that food rescue—though more economically costly than landfill or composting—is a lower cost method of obtaining food for the food insecure than direct purchasing. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Role of Vegetation in Mitigating Urban Land Surface Temperatures: A Case Study of Munich, Germany during the Warm Season
Sustainability 2015, 7(4), 4689-4706; https://doi.org/10.3390/su7044689
Received: 18 December 2014 / Revised: 14 April 2015 / Accepted: 14 April 2015 / Published: 21 April 2015
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (2808 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The Urban Heat Island (UHI) is the phenomenon of altered increased temperatures in urban areas compared to their rural surroundings. UHIs grow and intensify under extreme hot periods, such as during heat waves, which can affect human health and also increase the demand
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The Urban Heat Island (UHI) is the phenomenon of altered increased temperatures in urban areas compared to their rural surroundings. UHIs grow and intensify under extreme hot periods, such as during heat waves, which can affect human health and also increase the demand for energy for cooling. This study applies remote sensing and land use/land cover (LULC) data to assess the cooling effect of varying urban vegetation cover, especially during extreme warm periods, in the city of Munich, Germany. To compute the relationship between Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Land Use Land Cover (LULC), MODIS eight-day interval LST data for the months of June, July and August from 2002 to 2012 and the Corine Land Cover (CLC) database were used. Due to similarities in the behavior of surface temperature of different CLCs, some classes were reclassified and combined to form two major, rather simplified, homogenized classes: one of built-up area and one of urban vegetation. The homogenized map was merged with the MODIS eight-day interval LST data to compute the relationship between them. The results revealed that (i) the cooling effect accrued from urban vegetation tended to be non-linear; and (ii) a remarkable and stronger cooling effect in terms of LST was identified in regions where the proportion of vegetation cover was between seventy and almost eighty percent per square kilometer. The results also demonstrated that LST within urban vegetation was affected by the temperature of the surrounding built-up and that during the well-known European 2003 heat wave, suburb areas were cooler from the core of the urbanized region. This study concluded that the optimum green space for obtaining the lowest temperature is a non-linear trend. This could support urban planning strategies to facilitate appropriate applications to mitigate heat-stress in urban area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
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Open AccessArticle Habitat Mapping of the Leopard Cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) in South Korea Using GIS
Sustainability 2015, 7(4), 4668-4688; https://doi.org/10.3390/su7044668
Received: 22 January 2015 / Revised: 9 April 2015 / Accepted: 9 April 2015 / Published: 21 April 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2491 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to create maps of potentially sustainable leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) habitats for all of South Korea. The leopard cat, which is on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List, is the only
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The purpose of this study was to create maps of potentially sustainable leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) habitats for all of South Korea. The leopard cat, which is on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List, is the only member of the Felidae family in Korea. To create habitat potential maps, we selected various environmental factors potentially affecting the species’ distribution from a spatial database derived from geographic information system (GIS) data: elevation, slope, distance from a forest stand, road, or drainage, timber type, age, and land cover. We analyzed the spatial relationships between the distribution of the leopard cat and the environmental factors using a frequency ratio model and a logistic regression model. We then overlaid these relationships to produce a habitat potential map with a species potential index (SPI) value. Of the total number of known leopard cat locations, we used 50% for mapping and the remaining 50% for model validation. Our models were relatively successful and showed a high level of accuracy during model validation with existing locations (frequency ratio model 82.15%; logistic regression model 81.48%). The maps can be used to manage and monitor the habitat of mammal species and top predators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources)
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Open AccessArticle A Hybrid Inexact Optimization Method for Land-Use Allocation in Association with Environmental/Ecological Requirements at a Watershed Level
Sustainability 2015, 7(4), 4643-4667; https://doi.org/10.3390/su7044643
Received: 27 November 2014 / Revised: 8 April 2015 / Accepted: 9 April 2015 / Published: 20 April 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1193 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, an inexact stochastic fuzzy programming (ISFP) model is proposed for land-use allocation (LUA) and environmental/ecological planning at a watershed level, where uncertainties associated with land-use parameters, benefit functions, and environmental/ecological requirements are described as discrete intervals, probabilities and fuzzy sets.
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In this study, an inexact stochastic fuzzy programming (ISFP) model is proposed for land-use allocation (LUA) and environmental/ecological planning at a watershed level, where uncertainties associated with land-use parameters, benefit functions, and environmental/ecological requirements are described as discrete intervals, probabilities and fuzzy sets. In this model, an interval stochastic fuzzy programming model is used to support quantitative optimization under uncertainty. Complexities in land-use planning systems can be systematically reflected, thus applicability of the modeling process can be highly enhanced. The proposed method is applied to planning land use/ecological balance in Poyang Lake watershed, China. The objective of the ISFP is maximizing net benefit from the LUA system and the constraints including economic constraints, social constraints, land suitability constraints, environmental constraints, ecological constraints and technical constraints. Modeling results indicate that the desired system benefit will be between [15.17, 18.29] × 1012 yuan under the minimum violating probabilities; the optimized areas of commercial land, industrial land, agricultural land, transportation land, residential land, water land, green land, landfill land and unused land will be optimized cultivated land, forest land, grass land, water land, urban land, unused land and landfill will be [228234, 237844] ha, [47228, 58451] ha, [20982, 23718] ha, [33897, 35280] ha, [15215, 15907] ha, [528, 879] ha and [1023, 1260] ha. These data can be used for generating decision alternatives under different scenarios and thus help decision makers identify desired policies under various system-reliability constraints of ecological requirement and environmental capacity. Tradeoffs between system benefits and constraint-violation risks can be tackled. They are helpful for supporting (a) decision of land-use allocation and government investment; (b) formulation of local policies regarding ecological protection, environment protection and economic development; (c) analysis of interactions among economic benefits, system reliability and ecological requirements. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Consumer Acceptance of Eco-Labeled Fish: A Mexican Case Study
Sustainability 2015, 7(4), 4625-4642; https://doi.org/10.3390/su7044625
Received: 25 February 2015 / Revised: 21 March 2015 / Accepted: 13 April 2015 / Published: 17 April 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (752 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fish eco-labeling is a market-based incentive program for sustainable fisheries. This paper examines consumers’ acceptance of eco-labeled fish by using data from a pilot study conducted in a coastal area of northwestern Mexico. An ordered probit model was applied, using 364 observations. The
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Fish eco-labeling is a market-based incentive program for sustainable fisheries. This paper examines consumers’ acceptance of eco-labeled fish by using data from a pilot study conducted in a coastal area of northwestern Mexico. An ordered probit model was applied, using 364 observations. The results show that most respondents favor the idea of eco-labeled fish as a sustainable option and know that this is a costlier option. Income level, consumers’ occupation and frequency of fish consumption are factors taken into account in the buying decision. Price was not a statistically significant factor affecting purchase decision. The study suggests that employed consumers with knowledge of labels may prioritize their demand for eco-labeled fish. Thus, providing a clear definition of sustainability that increases consumer awareness might be a promising strategy in developing the market for eco-labeled fish. The results and their implications could be employed as an element for future development of consumer policies related to fish sustainability. Full article
Open AccessArticle Delivering a Multi-Functional and Resilient Urban Forest
Sustainability 2015, 7(4), 4600-4624; https://doi.org/10.3390/su7044600
Received: 9 March 2015 / Revised: 4 April 2015 / Accepted: 8 April 2015 / Published: 17 April 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1955 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Tree planting is widely advocated and applied in urban areas, with large-scale projects underway in cities globally. Numerous potential benefits are used to justify these planting campaigns. However, reports of poor tree survival raise questions about the ability of such projects to deliver
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Tree planting is widely advocated and applied in urban areas, with large-scale projects underway in cities globally. Numerous potential benefits are used to justify these planting campaigns. However, reports of poor tree survival raise questions about the ability of such projects to deliver on their promises over the long-term. Each potential benefit requires different supporting conditions—relating not only to the type and placement of the tree, but also to the broader urban system within which it is embedded. This set of supporting conditions may not always be mutually compatible and may not persist for the lifetime of the tree. Here, we demonstrate a systems-based approach that makes these dependencies, synergies, and tensions more explicit, allowing them to be used to test the decadal-scale resilience of urban street trees. Our analysis highlights social, environmental, and economic assumptions that are implicit within planting projects; notably that high levels of maintenance and public support for urban street trees will persist throughout their natural lifespan, and that the surrounding built form will remain largely unchanged. Whilst the vulnerability of each benefit may be highly context specific, we identify approaches that address some typical weaknesses, making a functional, resilient, urban forest more attainable. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Research on the Multi-Period Small-Signal Stability Probability of a Power System with Wind Farms Based on the Markov Chain
Sustainability 2015, 7(4), 4582-4599; https://doi.org/10.3390/su7044582
Received: 13 January 2015 / Revised: 7 April 2015 / Accepted: 9 April 2015 / Published: 17 April 2015
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Abstract
In the traditional studies on small-signal stability probability of a power system with wind farms, the frequency of wind speed was often assumed to obey to some extent a particular probability distribution. The stability probability that is thus obtained, however, actually only reflects
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In the traditional studies on small-signal stability probability of a power system with wind farms, the frequency of wind speed was often assumed to obey to some extent a particular probability distribution. The stability probability that is thus obtained, however, actually only reflects the power system stability characteristics on long time scales. In fact, there is a direct correlation between the change of wind speed and the current state of wind speed, resulting in the system stability characteristics in different time periods having a great difference compared with that of long time scales. However, the dispatchers are more concerned about the probability that the power system remains stable in the next period or after several periods, namely the stability characteristics of the power system in a short period or multi-period. Therefore, research on multi-period small-signal stability probability of a power system with wind farms has important theoretical value and practical significance. Based on the Markov chain, this paper conducted in-depth research on this subject. Firstly, the basic principle of the Markov chain was introduced, based on which we studied the uncertainty of wind power by adopting the transition matrix and the wind speed−power output transformation model and established the probability distribution model of multi-period wind power. Then the boundary-based small-signal stability probability evaluation method was used to establish an evaluation model of multi-period small-signal stability probability of power system with wind farms. Finally, taking the power system with two wind farms as an example, we analyzed its small-signal stability probability and studied the influence of the initial states of wind speed and different periods on the probability of stability. This study provides a new method and support for analyzing the small-signal stability probability of a power system with wind farms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Electrical Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Territorial Analysis of the Agricultural Terraced Landscapes of Tuscany (Italy): Preliminary Results
Sustainability 2015, 7(4), 4564-4581; https://doi.org/10.3390/su7044564
Received: 30 January 2015 / Revised: 2 April 2015 / Accepted: 10 April 2015 / Published: 16 April 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (5972 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Terraced areas have existed in Italy since ancient times, and they continue to be characteristic elements of the cultural identity of the country. The progressive abandonment of rural areas and farmland that began in the 1960s has led to the disintegration and disappearance
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Terraced areas have existed in Italy since ancient times, and they continue to be characteristic elements of the cultural identity of the country. The progressive abandonment of rural areas and farmland that began in the 1960s has led to the disintegration and disappearance of many terraces, representing one of the problems connected with the deterioration of the historic Tuscan agricultural landscape. This research aims to provide a contribution to the territorial analysis of the agricultural terraced landscapes at a regional scale. The preliminary phase of the study involved setting up a working method in Geographic Information System (GIS) for the quantitative definition of the population. Afterwards, for the territorial analysis at a more detailed scale, a method was devised to identify the areas of greater significance in terms of a terracing intensity index. The final results concerned considerations on the distribution of the terraced landscapes and analyses related to land use and the main environmental parameters of the most representative terraced systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape and Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Sustainable Development Strategy for the Global City: A Case Study of Sydney
Sustainability 2015, 7(4), 4549-4563; https://doi.org/10.3390/su7044549
Received: 5 January 2015 / Revised: 3 April 2015 / Accepted: 13 April 2015 / Published: 16 April 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2932 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Global cities, the command and control centres of the integrated world economy, are facing a sustainability paradox of greater global competition and greater environmental pressure. This study explores the policy approaches to the sustainability paradox by integrating environmental sustainability and economic competitiveness into
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Global cities, the command and control centres of the integrated world economy, are facing a sustainability paradox of greater global competition and greater environmental pressure. This study explores the policy approaches to the sustainability paradox by integrating environmental sustainability and economic competitiveness into the development strategy for “the global city”, based on a case study of Sydney. Dissecting Sustainable Sydney 2030, the strategy to guide the City’s development in the early 21st century, reveals the approaches used to achieve the integration. The approaches include green economy, sustainable redevelopment, integrated transport and connectivity, development of attractive public space, urban design for sustainable and good-looking urban form, marketisation of sustainability for a competitive edge, and a relational planning approach. Altogether they target mutually supportive benefits of environmental sustainability and economic competitiveness. The findings point out new directions for the City’s strategic development, and suggest a useful reference for counterpart global cities to address the common sustainability paradox. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Determinants and Sustainability of House Prices: The Case of Shanghai, China
Sustainability 2015, 7(4), 4524-4548; https://doi.org/10.3390/su7044524
Received: 11 February 2015 / Revised: 29 March 2015 / Accepted: 9 April 2015 / Published: 16 April 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (867 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent housing policies include measures for home purchase control and shanty town redevelopment. This study proposes sustainable pricing, in that the long-run equilibrium price is determined by the fundamentals of house prices. We argue that changes in CPI might have led to rapidly
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Recent housing policies include measures for home purchase control and shanty town redevelopment. This study proposes sustainable pricing, in that the long-run equilibrium price is determined by the fundamentals of house prices. We argue that changes in CPI might have led to rapidly growing house prices and rather high price levels. We investigate the long-run or short-run impacts of new commodity housing completions, transacted square meters of commodity housing, and CPI for house prices in Shanghai. We adopt monthly data for the period of 2005–2010. We test for unit roots using both the ADF and PP techniques and structural breaks using both the Zivot-Andrews (Model B) and Perron (Model C) methods. Considering Cheung-Lai and Reinsel–Ahn finite-sample corrections, the results suggest a long-run equilibrium. Housing completions negatively impact house prices in the short run. A positive volume-price relationship is suggested. Housing sales affect house prices in the short run but not vice versa. Hence, the empirical evidence supports the search model. In addition, CPI is strongly exogenous with respect to the long-run relationship and thus is a long-term determinant of house prices. CPI also positively and drastically influences house prices in the short run. Therefore, a reduction in inflation rate could stabilize house prices, increasing the chances of sustainable prices in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessCommunication Zero-Acreage Farming in the City of Berlin: An Aggregated Stakeholder Perspective on Potential Benefits and Challenges
Sustainability 2015, 7(4), 4511-4523; https://doi.org/10.3390/su7044511
Received: 10 February 2015 / Revised: 8 April 2015 / Accepted: 10 April 2015 / Published: 16 April 2015
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1012 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
How can buildings be combined with agricultural production and what are the major potential benefits and challenges for the introduction of zero-acreage farming (ZFarming) in Berlin from the relevant stakeholders’ perspectives? These questions were explored through a series of interviews and stakeholder workshops
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How can buildings be combined with agricultural production and what are the major potential benefits and challenges for the introduction of zero-acreage farming (ZFarming) in Berlin from the relevant stakeholders’ perspectives? These questions were explored through a series of interviews and stakeholder workshops held between 2011 and 2013. The aim was to identify the most suitable building-integrated farming model for the Berlin metropolitan area and to develop guidelines for the model’s successful and sustainable implementation through a stakeholder-driven approach. This paper provides an aggregated synthesis of the outcomes derived from the qualitative interviews and stakeholder workshops. As the results reveal, the stakeholders perceive potential benefits and challenges related to the issue of ZFarming in all dimensions (economic, social, environmental and political). They largely agreed on the importance of focusing on local resources, using energy-efficient production—including social and educational aspects—and developing new market structures when introducing ZFarming to the city of Berlin. The stakeholders identified urban rooftop greenhouses (RTG) as the most promising farming model for Berlin. In a joint collaboration of all stakeholders, a manual for RTG was developed within the participatory innovation process that addresses the identified problems and challenges associated with future implementation and governance of RTG in Berlin and beyond. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Assessing Green Development Efficiency of Municipalities and Provinces in China Integrating Models of Super-Efficiency DEA and Malmquist Index
Sustainability 2015, 7(4), 4492-4510; https://doi.org/10.3390/su7044492
Received: 31 October 2014 / Revised: 9 March 2015 / Accepted: 11 March 2015 / Published: 16 April 2015
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1555 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to realize economic and social green development, to pave a pathway towards China’s green regional development and develop effective scientific policy to assist in building green cities and countries, it is necessary to put forward a relatively accurate, scientific and concise
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In order to realize economic and social green development, to pave a pathway towards China’s green regional development and develop effective scientific policy to assist in building green cities and countries, it is necessary to put forward a relatively accurate, scientific and concise green assessment method. The research uses the CCR (A. Charnes & W. W. Cooper & E. Rhodes) Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model to obtain the green development frontier surface based on 31 regions’ annual cross-section data from 2008–2012. Furthermore, in order to classify the regions whereby assessment values equal to 1 in the CCR model, we chose the Super-Efficiency DEA model for further sorting. Meanwhile, according to the five-year panel data, the green development efficiency changes of 31 regions can be manifested by the Malmquist index. Finally, the study assesses the reasons for regional differences; while analyzing and discussing the results may allude to a superior green development pathway for China. Full article
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