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Special Issue "Landscape and Sustainability"

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A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2015)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Shangyi Zhou

School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, China
Website | E-Mail
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Je-Hun Ryu

School of Geography, Korea National University of Education, South Korea
E-Mail

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sustainability has been a popular theme in the natural and social sciences since the late 1980s when WECD members, including the former Norwegian Prime Minister, Gro Harlem Brundtland, were commissioned by the United Nations to study the topic. After four years of study, the report, "Our Common Future", was submitted to the UN General Assembly in 1987 with the key words “sustainable development " identified as the major theme. Most of the early scholars studying this topic focused on the relationships between humans and nature, but with continued investigations it was soon discovered that sustainable development required the inclusion and coordination of many additional fields, including those studying technology, economy, social institutions, culture and ideology. Today, many scholars from different fields and perspectives contribute to advancing our knowledge about SUSTAINABILITY.

Landscape is also a subject in which scholars of many different disciplines observe the world. By observing landscape characteristics and its evolution, scholars can help us understand if an ecological system or an environment, or a society and a culture, is sustainable. Architecture, landscape architecture, horticulture and gardening, geography, geomorphology, and botany have their own definitions of landscape. Even though there may be differences in these definitions, researchers agree that landscape includes the creatures and their impacts on the earth’s surface. Landscapes are the direct results of these human/nature interactions. One specific example that refers to the interaction between human resources and energy from nature is the construction of paddy terraces, which have a thousand-year history in Southeast Asia. Another example is the construction of a huge hydropower dam. Human/nature relationships can also be observed in indirect ways, for example, in humans’ spiritual relationships with nature. Examples of these relationships are a mountain that is a sacred place to Buddhists or a scenic waterfall that inspires painters and poets.

Sustainability science is an example of normative research, i.e., it requires some moral evaluation or position on the part of the researcher. Firstly, the view of environmental sustainability is supported by intergenerational equity moral position, that is, a care and concern about future generations. From an environmental ethics standpoint, scholars determine whether modern people have left a useful or useable landscape to future generations. Secondly, the cultures of human need and caring for the land should be preserved and developed. From this perspective, landscape designers, architects, regional planners, and geographers can judge their works and projects. In order to enhance our mutual understanding about landscape/sustainability relationships, we invite scholars from related disciplines and interdisciplinary fields to submit a manuscript for this special issue. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

  • The landscape/sustainability thread in traditional, modern and postmodern society
  • The harmony of humans and nature and caring for the land/environment
  • Place making in urban and rural areas
  • other related topics

Prof. Dr. Shangyi Zhou
Prof. Dr. Je-Hun Ryu
Guest Editors

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs).



Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Sustaining a Korean Traditional Rural Landscape in the Context of Cultural Landscape
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 11213-11239; doi:10.3390/su70811213
Received: 15 May 2015 / Accepted: 12 August 2015 / Published: 14 August 2015
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Abstract
Traditional rural landscapes emerged from the long term interaction of the natural and anthropogenic environment. These landscapes are now threatened by drastic social-ecological changes. Recent international trends on sustaining cultural landscapes place great emphasis on understanding of multiple values, presented in the landscape,
[...] Read more.
Traditional rural landscapes emerged from the long term interaction of the natural and anthropogenic environment. These landscapes are now threatened by drastic social-ecological changes. Recent international trends on sustaining cultural landscapes place great emphasis on understanding of multiple values, presented in the landscape, by considering various stakeholder perspectives. It is now recognized that strong community engagement with the landscape should be translated into conservation and management practices. This paper aims to examine the recent conservation activities around endangered traditional rural landscapes in Korea through a case study of Gacheon village. In this village, since 2000, a series of central administrative measures have been implemented to revive the local community, and to conserve its distinctive landscape. By analyzing challenges to the site, by discussing conservation experience and lessons, and by recommending future strategies for sustaining its cultural landscapes, this paper is expected to provide a basis for future policy-making for safeguarding traditional rural landscapes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Human-Environment System Boundaries: A Case Study of the Honghe Hani Rice Terraces as a World Heritage Cultural Landscape
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 10733-10755; doi:10.3390/su70810733
Received: 31 March 2015 / Revised: 30 July 2015 / Accepted: 31 July 2015 / Published: 7 August 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (981 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Any World Heritage Cultural Landscape requires a clear boundary for administration. One of the administrative goals is sustainability. There is no widely identified way to demarcate the boundary of a World Heritage Cultural Landscape. This paper aims to explore a methodology framework to
[...] Read more.
Any World Heritage Cultural Landscape requires a clear boundary for administration. One of the administrative goals is sustainability. There is no widely identified way to demarcate the boundary of a World Heritage Cultural Landscape. This paper aims to explore a methodology framework to provide a holistic perspective for demarcating boundaries for a World Heritage Cultural Landscape. Honghe Hani Rice Terraces (HHRT) in Yunnan Province is a new World Heritage Cultural Landscape in China. We use it as a research area to illustrate the methodology framework. The framework of methodology is constructed based on four scales of a human-environment system identified by Anne Buttimer. It is used to describe the level of the sustainability of local economy, social organization, natural environment and people’s understanding of the human-environment. Four types of boundaries were investigated in this area. They are the boundary of Malizhai River Basin, the boundary of local water-allocation organization, the boundary of the economic network and the perceptual boundary of the human-environment system. With a comprehensive perspective, we integrated the four types of boundaries to judge the boundary of the core area of HHRT by three criteria, they are: Environmental sustainability, social justice, and the ability to create a new human-environment system. We conclude that some parts of the boundary of the core area of HHRT do not fit the criteria of sustainable development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Landscape Changes and a Salt Production Sustainable Approach in the State of Salt Pan Area Decreasing on the Coast of Tianjin, China
Sustainability 2015, 7(8), 10078-10097; doi:10.3390/su70810078
Received: 22 March 2015 / Revised: 24 June 2015 / Accepted: 22 July 2015 / Published: 24 July 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1320 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Landsat images from 1979, 1988, 1999, 2008, and 2013 were used to analyze the landscape area change of salt pans lying on the coast of Tianjin. While initially (1979–1988), the area of Tianjin’s salt pan increased, later (1988–2013) it declined dramatically. In the
[...] Read more.
Landsat images from 1979, 1988, 1999, 2008, and 2013 were used to analyze the landscape area change of salt pans lying on the coast of Tianjin. While initially (1979–1988), the area of Tianjin’s salt pan increased, later (1988–2013) it declined dramatically. In the first phase (1979–1988) of the studied period the primary roll-in landscape of the salt pan wasbarren land with an area of 60.0 km2. By 1988, the area of Tianjin’s salt pan rose to 457.8 km2. The main roll-out landscape of the salt pan during 1988–2013 was urban, barren land, village/town, harbor, and road whose area amounted to 69.8, 35.9, 27.3, 25.5 and 18.4 km2 respectively. The roll-out barren land will be transformed to construction land ultimately. By 2013, the total loss reached 167.3 km2, which was 36.5% of the salt pan area of Tianjin in 1988. With the development of coastal economy, the salterns with a lower economic value were transformed to and replaced by land use types with a higher economic value. This trend would influence the production of sea salt and the development of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate industries. Seawater desalination provides an opportunity for the restoration and compensation of salt production capacity. Based on the theory of circular economy and industrial symbiosis, in this article an industrial symbiosis model for sea salt production and sea water desalination is explored: “mariculture–power plant cooling–seawater desalination–Artemia culture–bromide extraction–sea salt production–salt chemical industry”. Through the application of this process sustainable development of the sea salt production in Tianjin could be achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Sustainability of Historical Landscape to Gwanghalluwon Garden in Namwon City, Korea
Sustainability 2015, 7(7), 8565-8586; doi:10.3390/su7078565
Received: 15 May 2015 / Revised: 26 June 2015 / Accepted: 26 June 2015 / Published: 2 July 2015
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Abstract
The present study was intend to track down the transitional process in which the hierarchical dominance in the urban structure of Namwon City shifted from the Namwoneupseong Walled Town to the area of Gwanghalluwon Garden by using cadastral data and various historical sources.
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The present study was intend to track down the transitional process in which the hierarchical dominance in the urban structure of Namwon City shifted from the Namwoneupseong Walled Town to the area of Gwanghalluwon Garden by using cadastral data and various historical sources. It was aimed to find the factors regarding the transition and a sustainable development plan to the historical landscape. The results were as follows: First, the urban structure of former Namwon City has succeeded to a typical grid street structure of walled town. However, land use and urban landscape to an existing grid street structure and a modified grid street structure was formed by development of transportation in the city. In addition, as the fortress was demolished, land development expanded east and west along the railroad and Yochun River. Accordingly, the central areas of Namwon City also expanded and shifted from Namwoneupseong Walled Town to the new towns in the adjacent area. Secondly, lots transformation process of Gwanghalluwon Garden started the changing by transitioning from the pavilion of a past government office to tourist attraction in the novel Chunhyang-jeon, written during the Joseon Dynasty. It was transformed into the current area of Gwanghalluwon Garden through the regional expansion project in the 1960s, and the relocation of neighboring market in the 1970s by the conflagration. And Namwon County purchased these lands. Later, Gwanghalluwon Garden was designated a cultural asset and the current shape of Gwanghalluwon Garden has been preserved since then. Third, The secret of how Gwanghalluwon Garden has been able to survive as a “dominated landscape” is likely to be found in the relationship between the development of the city (external factor), historical landscapes (internal factor), and complex interactions of history, geography, culture, etc. Furthermore, each factor has served as a unique element in developing Gwanghalluwon Garden into a famous site. Now, people perceive the area surrounding Gwanghalluwon Garden as a valuable space. Fourth, to preserve Gwanghalluwon Garden’s important legacy as a historical landscape, it is necessary to shed new light on the awareness of values accumulated over time. Accordingly, the process by which a historical resource evolves in value, urban functions, and culture can be expected to have “unpredictable positive effects” in areas where cultural acts occur and society, environment, economics, etc. serve as motives to preserve the historical resource. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Assessing Landscape Ecological Risk in a Mining City: A Case Study in Liaoyuan City, China
Sustainability 2015, 7(7), 8312-8334; doi:10.3390/su7078312
Received: 29 January 2015 / Revised: 17 June 2015 / Accepted: 18 June 2015 / Published: 29 June 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1828 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Landscape ecological risk assessment can effectively identify key elements for landscape sustainability, which directly improves human wellbeing. However, previous research has tended to apply risk probability, measured by overlaying landscape metrics to evaluate risk, generally lacking a quantitative assessment of loss and uncertainty
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Landscape ecological risk assessment can effectively identify key elements for landscape sustainability, which directly improves human wellbeing. However, previous research has tended to apply risk probability, measured by overlaying landscape metrics to evaluate risk, generally lacking a quantitative assessment of loss and uncertainty of risk. This study, taking Liaoyuan City as a case area, explores landscape ecological risk assessment associated with mining cities, based on probability of risk and potential ecological loss. The assessment results show landscape ecological risk is lower in highly urbanized areas than those rural areas, suggesting that not only cities but also natural and semi-natural areas contribute to overall landscape-scale ecological risk. Our comparison of potential ecological risk in 58 watersheds in the region shows that ecological loss are moderate or high in the 10 high-risk watersheds. The 35 moderate-risk watersheds contain a large proportion of farmland, and the 13 low-risk watersheds are mainly distributed in flat terrain areas. Our uncertainty analyses result in a close range between simulated and calculated values, suggesting that our model is generally applicable. Our analysis has good potential in the fields of resource development, landscape planning and ecological restoration, and provides a quantitative method for achieving landscape sustainability in a mining city. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape and Sustainability)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Interpretation of 798: Changes in Power of Representation and Sustainability of Industrial Landscape
Sustainability 2015, 7(5), 5282-5303; doi:10.3390/su7055282
Received: 31 January 2015 / Revised: 13 April 2015 / Accepted: 22 April 2015 / Published: 30 April 2015
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Abstract
Against the background of economic transformation and urban renewal, the protection and sustainable development of urban industrial landscapes has become an important practical issue, and how to maintain the unique local culture of these landscapes is key to solving the problem. By integrating
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Against the background of economic transformation and urban renewal, the protection and sustainable development of urban industrial landscapes has become an important practical issue, and how to maintain the unique local culture of these landscapes is key to solving the problem. By integrating the concept of “layer” and regarding the landscape as text, this paper will investigate the representation of industrial landscapes and the process of changes in power represented by different actors through different texts from the perspective of representation. The paper selected Beijing 798 as the research area to explore the shaping of changes in the industrial landscape of 798 from a weapon manufacturing area to an arts district, creative industry park and the “pan 798” by the factory owners, government, management committee, artists, media and tourists through different presentation forms, revealing the game process of representation of powers among the coalition between artists, management committee and the government. The paper points out that in fact, the representation of industrial landscape by different actors through different texts is a process that continues to explore and define the value of landscape. However, we need to look at this when the value of the industrial landscape is no longer given by localized life practices, but rather depends on different actors to produce and reproduce the value of landscape by representation, and thereby affecting the sustainable development of industrial landscape. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Incorporating Renewable Energy Science in Regional Landscape Design: Results from a Competition in The Netherlands
Sustainability 2015, 7(5), 4806-4828; doi:10.3390/su7054806
Received: 30 January 2015 / Revised: 10 April 2015 / Accepted: 15 April 2015 / Published: 23 April 2015
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Abstract
Energy transition is expected to make an important contribution to sustainable development. Although it is argued that landscape design could foster energy transition, there is scant empirical research on how practitioners approach this new challenge. The research question central to this study is:
[...] Read more.
Energy transition is expected to make an important contribution to sustainable development. Although it is argued that landscape design could foster energy transition, there is scant empirical research on how practitioners approach this new challenge. The research question central to this study is: To what extent and how is renewable energy science incorporated in regional landscape design? To address this knowledge gap, a case study of a regional landscape design competition in the Netherlands, held from 2010–2012, is presented. Its focus was on integral, strategic landscape transformation with energy transition as a major theme. Content analysis of the 36 competition entries was supplemented and triangulated with a survey among the entrants, observation of the process and a study of the competition documents and website. Results indicated insufficient use of key-strategies elaborated by renewable energy science. If landscape design wants to adopt a supportive role towards energy transition, a well-informed and evidence-based approach is highly recommended. Nevertheless, promising strategies for addressing the complex process of ensuring sustainable energy transition also emerged. They include the careful cultivation of public support by developing inclusive and bottom-up processes, and balancing energy-conscious interventions with other land uses and interests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Territorial Analysis of the Agricultural Terraced Landscapes of Tuscany (Italy): Preliminary Results
Sustainability 2015, 7(4), 4564-4581; doi:10.3390/su7044564
Received: 30 January 2015 / Revised: 2 April 2015 / Accepted: 10 April 2015 / Published: 16 April 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (5972 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Terraced areas have existed in Italy since ancient times, and they continue to be characteristic elements of the cultural identity of the country. The progressive abandonment of rural areas and farmland that began in the 1960s has led to the disintegration and disappearance
[...] Read more.
Terraced areas have existed in Italy since ancient times, and they continue to be characteristic elements of the cultural identity of the country. The progressive abandonment of rural areas and farmland that began in the 1960s has led to the disintegration and disappearance of many terraces, representing one of the problems connected with the deterioration of the historic Tuscan agricultural landscape. This research aims to provide a contribution to the territorial analysis of the agricultural terraced landscapes at a regional scale. The preliminary phase of the study involved setting up a working method in Geographic Information System (GIS) for the quantitative definition of the population. Afterwards, for the territorial analysis at a more detailed scale, a method was devised to identify the areas of greater significance in terms of a terracing intensity index. The final results concerned considerations on the distribution of the terraced landscapes and analyses related to land use and the main environmental parameters of the most representative terraced systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Optimal Electricity Distribution Framework for Public Space: Assessing Renewable Energy Proposals for Freshkills Park, New York City
Sustainability 2015, 7(4), 3753-3773; doi:10.3390/su7043753
Received: 30 January 2015 / Revised: 23 March 2015 / Accepted: 24 March 2015 / Published: 30 March 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1166 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Integrating renewable energy into public space is becoming more common as a climate change solution. However, this approach is often guided by the environmental pillar of sustainability, with less focus on the economic and social pillars. The purpose of this paper is to
[...] Read more.
Integrating renewable energy into public space is becoming more common as a climate change solution. However, this approach is often guided by the environmental pillar of sustainability, with less focus on the economic and social pillars. The purpose of this paper is to examine this issue in the speculative renewable energy propositions for Freshkills Park in New York City submitted for the 2012 Land Art Generator Initiative (LAGI) competition. This paper first proposes an optimal electricity distribution (OED) framework in and around public spaces based on relevant ecology and energy theory (Odum’s fourth and fifth law of thermodynamics). This framework addresses social engagement related to public interaction, and economic engagement related to the estimated quantity of electricity produced, in conjunction with environmental engagement related to the embodied energy required to construct the renewable energy infrastructure. Next, the study uses the OED framework to analyse the top twenty-five projects submitted for the LAGI 2012 competition. The findings reveal an electricity distribution imbalance and suggest a lack of in-depth understanding about sustainable electricity distribution within public space design. The paper concludes with suggestions for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Contextualism and Sustainability: A Community Renewal in Old City of Beijing
Sustainability 2015, 7(1), 747-766; doi:10.3390/su7010747
Received: 17 September 2014 / Accepted: 6 January 2015 / Published: 12 January 2015
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Abstract
The conception of contextualism in community planning emphasizes the integrity of architecture and its surroundings. It also implies the sustainability of landscape meaning within a community. In as much as planning theories have not mentioned how extensive the background of a community should
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The conception of contextualism in community planning emphasizes the integrity of architecture and its surroundings. It also implies the sustainability of landscape meaning within a community. In as much as planning theories have not mentioned how extensive the background of a community should be considered by a community planner, this paper will seek to answer this question. It considers Nanluoguxiang (NLGX), a community in the old city of Beijing, as the study area. Based on government documents, interviews of residents and also landscape observations in NLGX, this paper identifies the contextual practices in three renovation stages from the perspective of place uniqueness. The planners considered the background of NLGX at three different scales in its three renovation stages. In the last stage, they considered the entire country within the context of planning. NLGX has a unique image in Beijing, even within China. The image of it is the main market at the north end of the Grand Canal. The Grand Canal shows the spatial organization power of the ancient empire because it was the key food supply route for the capital. This is not only the cultural heritage of local residents of NLGX, but is also identified by other citizens in China. We conclude that an historical community can be preserved better by national funds if it has found a unique meaning of its landscape within a broader background. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Place, Capital Flows and Property Regimes: The Elites’ Former Houses in Beijing’s South Luogu Lane
Sustainability 2015, 7(1), 398-421; doi:10.3390/su7010398
Received: 21 August 2014 / Accepted: 22 December 2014 / Published: 31 December 2014
PDF Full-text (3461 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Place is seen as a process whereby social and cultural forms are reproduced. This process is closely linked to capital flows, which are, in turn, shaped by changing property regimes. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the relationship between property regimes,
[...] Read more.
Place is seen as a process whereby social and cultural forms are reproduced. This process is closely linked to capital flows, which are, in turn, shaped by changing property regimes. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the relationship between property regimes, capital flows and place-making. The goal of this paper is to highlight the role of changing property regimes in the production of place. Our research area is South Luogu Lane (SLL) in Central Beijing. We take elites’ former houses in SLL as the main unit of analysis in this study. From studying this changing landscape, we draw four main conclusions. First, the location of SSL was critical in enabling it to emerge as a high-status residential community near the imperial city. Second, historical patterns of capital accumulation influenced subsequent rounds of private investment into particular areas of SLL. Third, as laws relating to the ownership of land and real estate changed fundamentally in the early 1950s and again in the 1980s, the target and intensity of capital flows into housing in SLL changed too. Fourth, these changes in capital flow are linked to ongoing changes in the place image of SLL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Factors Influencing the Conversion of Arable Land to Urban Use and Policy Implications in Beijing, China
Sustainability 2015, 7(1), 180-194; doi:10.3390/su7010180
Received: 29 October 2014 / Accepted: 19 December 2014 / Published: 26 December 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2056 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rapid urban land expansion and the resulting arable land loss have put food security in China at risk. This paper investigates the characteristics and mechanism of arable land conversion in Beijing using a logistic model based on land-use data for 2001 and 2010.
[...] Read more.
Rapid urban land expansion and the resulting arable land loss have put food security in China at risk. This paper investigates the characteristics and mechanism of arable land conversion in Beijing using a logistic model based on land-use data for 2001 and 2010. The results suggest that (1) arable land conversion tends to occur near built-up areas, city centers and major roads; (2) arable land that lies closer to irrigation canals and country roads is less likely to be converted to urban use; (3) arable land that is bigger in size and has a more regular shape has a lower probability of conversion to urban use; and (4) the Prime Farmland Protection policy and related land-use plan have played a positive role in preserving arable land, demonstrated by the probability for arable land conversion inside a prime farmland boundary is 63.9 percent less than for land outside the boundary. Based on these findings and on sustainable-development principles, we suggest that, rather than an exclusive focus on controlling the quantity of arable land, the location and characteristics of the arable land should be a primary consideration when designing urban policies and plans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Sustainable Development Mechanism of Food Culture’s Translocal Production Based on Authenticity
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 7030-7047; doi:10.3390/su6107030
Received: 23 June 2014 / Revised: 28 August 2014 / Accepted: 19 September 2014 / Published: 13 October 2014
PDF Full-text (690 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Food culture is a kind of non-material culture with authenticity. To achieve sustainable development of translocal heritage and food culture, we must protect its authenticity. By selecting the cases of the Dongbeiren Flavor Dumpling Restaurant and the Daozanjia Northeast Dumpling Restaurant and using
[...] Read more.
Food culture is a kind of non-material culture with authenticity. To achieve sustainable development of translocal heritage and food culture, we must protect its authenticity. By selecting the cases of the Dongbeiren Flavor Dumpling Restaurant and the Daozanjia Northeast Dumpling Restaurant and using the in-depth interview method, this study discusses how northeastern Cuisine in Guangzhou balances the inheritance and innovation of authenticity, how producers and customers negotiate, and how to realize sustainable development. The main conclusions are: first, there are two different paths of translocal food culture production, which are “authentic food culture production” and “differentiated food culture production”. Second, what translocal enterprises produce is not objective authenticity, but constructive authenticity, or even existential authenticity. Third, compared with differentiated food culture production, authentic food culture production is helpful for the sustainable development of local food culture production. It protects the locality while transmitting and developing the local culture. Fourth, translocal food culture production is a process in which the producers and consumers continue to interact to maintain a state of equilibrium, which informs the sustainable development mechanism with a high degree of authenticity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Examining the Impact of Greenspace Patterns on Land Surface Temperature by Coupling LiDAR Data with a CFD Model
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 6799-6814; doi:10.3390/su6106799
Received: 10 July 2014 / Revised: 18 September 2014 / Accepted: 22 September 2014 / Published: 30 September 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3893 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Understanding the link between greenspace patterns and land surface temperature is very important for mitigating the urban heat island (UHI) effect and is also useful for planners and decision-makers for providing a sustainable design for urban greenspace. Although coupling remote sensing data with
[...] Read more.
Understanding the link between greenspace patterns and land surface temperature is very important for mitigating the urban heat island (UHI) effect and is also useful for planners and decision-makers for providing a sustainable design for urban greenspace. Although coupling remote sensing data with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has widely been used to examine interactions between UHI and greenspace patterns, the paper aims to examine the impact of five theoretical models of greenspace patterns on land surface temperature based on the improvement of the accuracy of CFD modeling by the combination of LiDAR data with remote sensing images to build a 3D urban model. The simulated results demonstrated that the zonal pattern always had the obvious cooling effects when there are no large buildings or terrain obstacles. For ambient environments, the building or terrain obstacles and the type of greenspace have the hugest influence on mitigating the UHI, but the greenspace area behaves as having the least cooling effect. A dotted greenspace pattern shows the best cooling effect in the central area or residential district within a city, while a radial and a wedge pattern may result in a “cold source” for the urban thermal environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Urban Land Pattern Impacts on Floods in a New District of China
Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 6488-6508; doi:10.3390/su6106488
Received: 4 June 2014 / Revised: 15 August 2014 / Accepted: 5 September 2014 / Published: 26 September 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2968 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Urban floods are linked to patterns of land use, specifically urban sprawl. Since the 1980s, government-led new districts are sweeping across China, which account for many of the floods events. Focuses of urbanization impact on floods are extending gradually from hydraulic channels, to
[...] Read more.
Urban floods are linked to patterns of land use, specifically urban sprawl. Since the 1980s, government-led new districts are sweeping across China, which account for many of the floods events. Focuses of urbanization impact on floods are extending gradually from hydraulic channels, to imperviousness ratio, to imperviousness pattern in urban areas or urbanized basins. Thus, the paper aims to explore how urban land pattern can affect floods in urban areas to provide decision makers with guidance on land use and stormwater management. Imperviousness was generally correlated with spatial variations in land use, with lower imperviousness in less dense, new districts, and higher imperviousness in more dense, uniform/clustered development in local areas adjacent to hot nodes. The way imperviousness and channel are organized, and the location of imperviousness within a catchment, can influence floods. Local government’s approach to new district planning, in terms of zoning provisions, has only considered some development aspects and has not adequately integrated flood management. A key issue for the planning should been done to adequately cater for flooding, particularly considering the benefits of keeping natural conveyance systems (rivers) and their floodplains to manage flood waters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Landscape and Sustainability)

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