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Sustainability, Volume 7, Issue 3 (March 2015), Pages 2274-3514

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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Barriers of Corporate Social Responsibility Using an Analytical Hierarchy Process under a Fuzzy Environment—A Textile Case
Sustainability 2015, 7(3), 3493-3514; https://doi.org/10.3390/su7033493
Received: 29 October 2014 / Revised: 11 February 2015 / Accepted: 3 March 2015 / Published: 23 March 2015
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (764 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The ventilating crisis of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) issues in the textiles industry resulted in the engagement of many researchers in the analysis of CSR and its related factors throughout the globe. Some researchers in developed nations extend their policies beyond the boundary
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The ventilating crisis of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) issues in the textiles industry resulted in the engagement of many researchers in the analysis of CSR and its related factors throughout the globe. Some researchers in developed nations extend their policies beyond the boundary of CSR in the textiles industry, but some developing contexts are still limited to this boundary, including India, due to facts that have not yet been revealed. Hence, to fill this gap, this study reveals the factors that are resisting the implementation of CSR in the textiles industry with the assistance of a proposed model, and this model is validated with a case industry situated in southern India. Common barriers are collected through various reliable means, and among those common barriers, the essential barrier was identified with the assistance of the case industrial manager through an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) under a fuzzy environment. The results show that financial constraints comprise the main barrier to the implementation of CSR in the Indian textiles industry, which is then further validated with feedback from case industry managers. This study offers both societal and scientific insights, identifies limitations, and provides an approach that may be extended in the future once additional factors are implemented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Fashion Business Operations)
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Open AccessArticle Sustainable Innovation, Management Accounting and Control Systems, and International Performance
Sustainability 2015, 7(3), 3479-3492; https://doi.org/10.3390/su7033479
Received: 24 December 2014 / Revised: 26 February 2015 / Accepted: 17 March 2015 / Published: 23 March 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (688 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study analyzes how Management Accounting and Control Systems (MACS) facilitate the appropriation of the benefits of sustainable innovations in organizations. In particular, this paper examines the moderating role of different types of MACS in the relationships between sustainable innovation and international performance
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This study analyzes how Management Accounting and Control Systems (MACS) facilitate the appropriation of the benefits of sustainable innovations in organizations. In particular, this paper examines the moderating role of different types of MACS in the relationships between sustainable innovation and international performance at an organizational level. We collected survey data from 123 Spanish and Portuguese organizations. Partial Least Square was used to analyze the data. Results show that the effect of sustainable innovations on international performance is enhanced by contemporary rather than traditional types of MACS. Overall our findings show that MACS can help managers to develop and monitor organizational activities (e.g., costumer services and distribution activities), which support the appropriation of the potential benefits from sustainable innovation. This paper responds to recent calls for in-depth studies about the organizational mechanism that may enhance the success of sustainable innovation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Business and Development)
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Open AccessArticle Economic Impacts of Total Water Use Control in the Heihe River Basin in Northwestern China—An Integrated CGE-BEM Modeling Approach
Sustainability 2015, 7(3), 3460-3478; https://doi.org/10.3390/su7033460
Received: 19 November 2014 / Revised: 10 March 2015 / Accepted: 10 March 2015 / Published: 23 March 2015
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1099 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper develops an integrated modeling approach combined with a top-down dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model and a bottom-up bio-economic model (BEM) to study the economic impact of a total water use control policy in the Heihe river basin, northwestern China. The
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This paper develops an integrated modeling approach combined with a top-down dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model and a bottom-up bio-economic model (BEM) to study the economic impact of a total water use control policy in the Heihe river basin, northwestern China. The integrated CGE-BEM model is regionally disaggregated with a variety of crops and livestock, and includes the responses of farmers and consequent feedback effects in the regional economic system. The results show that under the total water use control scenario, the water use structure is changed and water use efficiency is improved. The total water use control policy has limited negative impact on the regional economic growth with only a slightly lower growth rate of 13.38% compared with a growth rate of 14% by 2020 under a business as usual water use scenario. However, the total water use control policy has significant negative impacts on several sectors, especially agriculture and food processing. It is expected cropping systems will change through a replacement of water-intensive crops with water-efficient crops. Farmers’ incomes will decrease by 3.14%. In order to alleviate farmers’ income loss and deal with water use conflicts across different sectors and regions, the promotion of migration of surplus labor from agriculture to non-agricultural sectors and the improvement of water use efficiency in agriculture are needed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sustainability Aspects of Energy Conversion in Modern High-Speed Trains with Traction Induction Motors
Sustainability 2015, 7(3), 3441-3459; https://doi.org/10.3390/su7033441
Received: 14 January 2015 / Revised: 10 March 2015 / Accepted: 16 March 2015 / Published: 20 March 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1154 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Some aspects are illustrated of energy conversion processes during the operation of electric railway vehicles with traction induction motors, in order to support transport systems’ sustainability. Increasing efforts are being expended to enhance the sustainability of transportation technologies and systems. Since electric drive
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Some aspects are illustrated of energy conversion processes during the operation of electric railway vehicles with traction induction motors, in order to support transport systems’ sustainability. Increasing efforts are being expended to enhance the sustainability of transportation technologies and systems. Since electric drive systems are used with variable voltage variable frequency (VVVF) inverters and traction induction motors, these machines with appropriate controls can realize both traction and electric braking regimes for electric traction vehicles. In line with this idea, this paper addresses the operation sustainability of electric railway vehicles highlighting the chain of interactions among the main electric equipment on an electrically driven railway system supplied from an a.c. contact line: The contact line-side converter, the machine-side converter and the traction induction motor. The paper supports the findings that electric traction drive systems using induction motors fed by network-side converters and VVVF inverters enhance the sustainable operation of railway trains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Electrical Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Resource Demand Growth and Sustainability Due to Increased World Consumption
Sustainability 2015, 7(3), 3430-3440; https://doi.org/10.3390/su7033430
Received: 7 November 2014 / Revised: 6 March 2015 / Accepted: 17 March 2015 / Published: 20 March 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2438 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The paper aims at continuing the discussion on sustainability and attempts to forecast the impossibility of the expanding consumption worldwide due to the planet’s limited resources. As the population of China, India and other developing countries continue to increase, they would also require
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The paper aims at continuing the discussion on sustainability and attempts to forecast the impossibility of the expanding consumption worldwide due to the planet’s limited resources. As the population of China, India and other developing countries continue to increase, they would also require more natural and financial resources to sustain their growth. We coarsely estimate the volumes of these resources (energy, food, freshwater) and the gross domestic product (GDP) that would need to be achieved to bring the population of India and China to the current levels of consumption in the United States. We also provide estimations for potentially needed immediate growth of the world resource consumption to meet this equality requirement. Given the tight historical correlation between GDP and energy consumption, the needed increase of GDP per capita in the developing world to the levels of the U.S. would deplete explored fossil fuel reserves in less than two decades. These estimates predict that the world economy would need to find a development model where growth would be achieved without heavy dependence on fossil fuels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Indicator Policy Factsheets: A Knowledge Brokerage Tool
Sustainability 2015, 7(3), 3414-3429; https://doi.org/10.3390/su7033414
Received: 17 November 2014 / Revised: 12 March 2015 / Accepted: 13 March 2015 / Published: 20 March 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (873 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The concepts of sustainable development, quality of life, wellbeing, green growth, etc., and their assessment by various kinds of indicators (within the “Beyond GDP”, or later known as the “GDP and Beyond” movement) have become important features of the professional life of
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The concepts of sustainable development, quality of life, wellbeing, green growth, etc., and their assessment by various kinds of indicators (within the “Beyond GDP”, or later known as the “GDP and Beyond” movement) have become important features of the professional life of many researchers, administrators and even policy makers. The underlying concepts, as well as the indicators are very broad, are often closely linked or overlapping and are in a continuous process of development. Information about them is primarily available in a scientific form—hypotheses, models, scenarios and figures—seldom comprehensible for a broad spectrum of final users. Some recent surveys show that the proliferation of indicators and the complexity (and complicatedness) of the underlying concepts impede the willingness of policy makers to use them. One of the most viable and effective ways to overcome this barrier is to provide users with accurately targeted information about particular indicators. The article introduces “indicator policy factsheets” complementing the already developed and routinely used “indicator methodology sheets”; indicator policy factsheets contain specific and easy-to-obtain information supporting instrumental, conceptual and symbolic use of indicators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle An Integrated Approach to Mitigation Wetland Site Selection: A Case Study in Gwacheon, Korea
Sustainability 2015, 7(3), 3386-3413; https://doi.org/10.3390/su7033386
Received: 19 December 2014 / Revised: 4 March 2015 / Accepted: 10 March 2015 / Published: 20 March 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3464 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents an integrated approach to mitigation wetland site selection using functional landscape connectivity and landscape structure. This approach enables landscape designers to evaluate the relative priorities of mitigation wetland areas based on functional landscape connectivity and wildlife mobility, as well as
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This paper presents an integrated approach to mitigation wetland site selection using functional landscape connectivity and landscape structure. This approach enables landscape designers to evaluate the relative priorities of mitigation wetland areas based on functional landscape connectivity and wildlife mobility, as well as landscape structure, composition, and configuration. The least-cost path method is used to evaluate candidate sites for mitigation wetlands with regard to wildlife movement. A set of assessments for landscape indices using FRAGSTATS was applied to identify suitable mitigation wetland areas on the basis of landscape connectivity, composition, and configuration. The study was conducted in Gwacheon, Korea, where there are plans for regional development that will change the landscape. In the first step, a group of 14 candidate sites is identified via analysis of functional landscape connectivity using the least-cost path method. In the second step, candidate mitigation wetland areas are ranked according to landscape connectivity and composition. The five mitigation wetland areas that were found to be suitable were analyzed based on landscape configuration at the class level. This study demonstrates that functional landscape connectivity and landscape structure are important aspects to consider when identifying suitable sites for mitigation wetland planning and restoration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Land Use and Ecosystem Management)
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Open AccessArticle Long-Term Urban Growth and Land Use Efficiency in Southern Europe: Implications for Sustainable Land Management
Sustainability 2015, 7(3), 3359-3385; https://doi.org/10.3390/su7033359
Received: 26 November 2014 / Revised: 17 January 2015 / Accepted: 3 February 2015 / Published: 19 March 2015
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (2144 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study illustrates a multidimensional analysis of an indicator of urban land use efficiency (per-capita built-up area, LUE) in mainland Attica, a Mediterranean urban region, along different expansion waves (1960–2010): compaction and densification in the 1960s, dispersed growth along the coasts and
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The present study illustrates a multidimensional analysis of an indicator of urban land use efficiency (per-capita built-up area, LUE) in mainland Attica, a Mediterranean urban region, along different expansion waves (1960–2010): compaction and densification in the 1960s, dispersed growth along the coasts and on Athens’ fringe in the 1970s, fringe consolidation in the 1980s, moderate re-polarization and discontinuous expansion in the 1990s and sprawl in remote areas in the 2000s. The non-linear trend in LUE (a continuous increase up to the 1980s and a moderate decrease in 1990 and 2000 preceding the rise observed over the last decade) reflects Athens’ expansion waves. A total of 23 indicators were collected by decade for each municipality of the study area with the aim of identifying the drivers of land use efficiency. In 1960, municipalities with low efficiency in the use of land were concentrated on both coastal areas and Athens’ fringe, while in 2010, the lowest efficiency rate was observed in the most remote, rural areas. Typical urban functions (e.g., mixed land uses, multiple-use buildings, vertical profile) are the variables most associated with high efficiency in the use of land. Policies for sustainable land management should consider local and regional factors shaping land use efficiency promoting self-contained expansion and more tightly protecting rural and remote land from dispersed urbanization. LUE is a promising indicator reflecting the increased complexity of growth patterns and may anticipate future urban trends. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Estimating Potential GDP for the Romanian Economy and Assessing the Sustainability of Economic Growth: A Multivariate Filter Approach
Sustainability 2015, 7(3), 3338-3358; https://doi.org/10.3390/su7033338
Received: 28 November 2014 / Revised: 11 March 2015 / Accepted: 12 March 2015 / Published: 19 March 2015
PDF Full-text (1640 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the current context of economic recovery and rebalancing, the necessity of modelling and estimating the potential output and output gap emerges in order to assess the quality and sustainability of economic growth, the monetary and fiscal policies, as well as the impact
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In the current context of economic recovery and rebalancing, the necessity of modelling and estimating the potential output and output gap emerges in order to assess the quality and sustainability of economic growth, the monetary and fiscal policies, as well as the impact of business cycles. Despite the importance of potential GDP and the output gap, there are difficulties in reliably estimating them, as many of the models proposed in the economic literature are calibrated for developed economies and are based on complex macroeconomic relationships and a long history of robust data, while emerging economies exhibit high volatility. The object of this study is to develop a model in order to estimate the potential GDP and output gap and to assess the sustainability of projected growth using a multivariate filter approach. This trend estimation technique is the newest approach proposed by the economic literature and has gained wide acceptance with researchers and practitioners alike, while also being used by the IMF for Romania. The paper will be structured as follows. We first discuss the theoretical background of the model. The second section focuses on an analysis of the Romanian economy for the 1995–2013 time frame, while also providing a forecast for 2014–2017 and an assessment of the sustainability of Romania’s economic growth. The third section sums up the results and concludes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Willingness to Pay for Carbon Sequestration and Co-Benefits of Forests in Turkey
Sustainability 2015, 7(3), 3311-3337; https://doi.org/10.3390/su7033311
Received: 27 October 2014 / Revised: 25 February 2015 / Accepted: 9 March 2015 / Published: 19 March 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1178 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Scientists express concern about increasing levels of greenhouse gases mainly due to fossil fuel consumption and deforestation. In response to the latter, policy-makers have introduced a range of policy measures to conserve and enhance forest ecosystems for carbon sequestration. The costs for policy
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Scientists express concern about increasing levels of greenhouse gases mainly due to fossil fuel consumption and deforestation. In response to the latter, policy-makers have introduced a range of policy measures to conserve and enhance forest ecosystems for carbon sequestration. The costs for policy measures to maintain ecosystem services can be calculated easily, but especially non-market/non-use benefits of forests are not easy to estimate. Economics can help designing climate change policies by eliciting public preferences on different attributes of climate change and carbon sequestration. This study was prepared for the purpose of identifying per capita consumer/equivalent surplus or maximum willingness to pay and the total economic value in relation to forests to be established in Turkey to reduce air pollution around cities, to prevent the adverse effects of climate change and to sequester carbon. The data for the estimation of maximum willingness to pay, total economic value and co-benefits of forests were collected with a questionnaire form prepared according to the contingent valuation method. Analyses have been conducted by correlation analysis and regression analysis. According to the analyses, per capita consumer/equivalent surplus or maximum willingness to pay to establish a new forest was estimated at US$ 23.52 on average, while total economic value was estimated at US$ 270,443,962.68. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Low Carbon Footprint Routes for Bird Watching
Sustainability 2015, 7(3), 3290-3310; https://doi.org/10.3390/su7033290
Received: 4 October 2014 / Revised: 25 February 2015 / Accepted: 13 March 2015 / Published: 19 March 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (17416 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bird watching is one of many recreational activities popular in ecotourism. Its popularity, therefore, prompts the need for studies on energy conservation. One such environmentally friendly approach toward minimizing bird watching’s ecological impact is ensuring a reduced carbon footprint by using an economic
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Bird watching is one of many recreational activities popular in ecotourism. Its popularity, therefore, prompts the need for studies on energy conservation. One such environmentally friendly approach toward minimizing bird watching’s ecological impact is ensuring a reduced carbon footprint by using an economic travel itinerary comprising a series of connected routes between tourist attractions that minimizes transit time. This study used a travel-route planning approach using geographic information systems to detect the shortest path, thereby solving the problems associated with time-consuming transport. Based on the results of road network analyses, optimal travel-route planning can be determined. These methods include simulated annealing (SA) and genetic algorithms (GA). We applied two algorithms in our simulation research to detect which one is an appropriate algorithm for running carbon-routing algorithms at the regional scale. SA, which is superior to GA, is considered an excellent approach to search for the optimal path to reduce carbon dioxide and high gasoline fees, thereby controlling travel time by using the shortest travel routes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Land Use and Ecosystem Management)
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Open AccessArticle Transition Thinking Incorporated: Towards a New Discussion Framework on Sustainable Urban Projects
Sustainability 2015, 7(3), 3269-3289; https://doi.org/10.3390/su7033269
Received: 19 December 2014 / Revised: 5 March 2015 / Accepted: 5 March 2015 / Published: 18 March 2015
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (698 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Today, cities worldwide are engaged in urban projects and activities in a concerted drive towards sustainable development. However, the concept of “sustainable urban projects” is inherently normative, subjective and ambiguous. Furthermore, the popularity of sustainable urban initiatives does not guarantee that increased pressure
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Today, cities worldwide are engaged in urban projects and activities in a concerted drive towards sustainable development. However, the concept of “sustainable urban projects” is inherently normative, subjective and ambiguous. Furthermore, the popularity of sustainable urban initiatives does not guarantee that increased pressure on dominant unsustainable urban systems will occur. In this article, we argue that strong urban debates on these initiatives and on urban sustainability are required to facilitate and stimulate urban systems towards a more socially just and environmentally sustainable future. When we say “urban debates” we mean substantive talks and detailed discussions about the type of cities we want to live in and about a shared understanding of sustainable urban projects and how they affect urban systems. We aim to contribute to that objective by developing a discussion framework on sustainable urban projects that frames sustainable development as a challenge that concentrates on both ecological and social concerns and that avoids a sole reliance on technology fixes. But above all, we also incorporate insights and findings from transition thinking to focus on radical changes or transformations of urban systems and to acknowledge the importance of so-called “niches”. In this article we describe the fundamentals, the surplus value and the utility of the framework. The article contains empirical material from a pilot-study in Ghent, Belgium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Urban Development)
Open AccessArticle Using Urban-Carrying Capacity as a Benchmark for Sustainable Urban Development: An Empirical Study of Beijing
Sustainability 2015, 7(3), 3244-3268; https://doi.org/10.3390/su7033244
Received: 15 November 2014 / Revised: 24 February 2015 / Accepted: 27 February 2015 / Published: 17 March 2015
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (2006 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sustainable urban development has been receiving growing concerns from both city managers and urban residents across the world. As a yardstick of sustainability, urban carrying capacity (UCC) is an important conceptual underpinning that guides local governments in promoting sustainable urban development. However, existing
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Sustainable urban development has been receiving growing concerns from both city managers and urban residents across the world. As a yardstick of sustainability, urban carrying capacity (UCC) is an important conceptual underpinning that guides local governments in promoting sustainable urban development. However, existing studies still lack consensus not only on the theoretical aspects, but also on the methodological issues for UCC monitoring and evaluation. A knowledge gap exists, which this paper fills. This study aims to develop a practical UCC assessment framework to guide urban development towards achieving sustainability. The quantitative-based assessment framework provides a set of measurable indicators and benchmarks for city managers to conduct routine monitoring on progress toward urban sustainability, and helps identify deficient areas, which urgently need resource allocation to improve UCC. Focusing on a case study of Beijing, this study demonstrates that the framework is useful in promoting urban sustainability. This framework provides rich implications for other city prototypes in China as the nation marches into the next phase of development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Crossing Method for Quinoa
Sustainability 2015, 7(3), 3230-3243; https://doi.org/10.3390/su7033230
Received: 20 December 2014 / Revised: 8 March 2015 / Accepted: 11 March 2015 / Published: 17 March 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (8208 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As sustainable production of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) increases and its geographic range of cultivation expands, quinoa breeding will allow use of the crop’s wide genetic diversity for cultivar improvement and for adaptation to new agroecosystems and climactic regimes. Such breeding work
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As sustainable production of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) increases and its geographic range of cultivation expands, quinoa breeding will allow use of the crop’s wide genetic diversity for cultivar improvement and for adaptation to new agroecosystems and climactic regimes. Such breeding work will require a reliable technique for crossing quinoa plants using hand emasculation. The technique described herein focuses on the isolation of small flower clusters produced low on the plant, emasculation of male flowers, and subsequent pairing of the emasculated female parent with a male parent undergoing anthesis. Various traits, such as plant color, seed color, and axil pigmentation can be used to confirm the successful production of F1 plants. The manual hybridization technology provides a significant advantage over pairing plants and relying on chance cross-pollination, and has been successfully used to generate crosses between quinoa cultivars, as well as interspecific crosses between quinoa and Chenopodium berlandieri. This technology will help pave the way for the introduction and sustainable expansion of quinoa on a global scale across a wide range of target environments and diverse farming systems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Livelihood Strategies in Shaxi, Southwest China: Conceptualizing Mountain–Valley Interactions as a Human–Environment System
Sustainability 2015, 7(3), 3204-3229; https://doi.org/10.3390/su7033204
Received: 17 January 2015 / Revised: 9 March 2015 / Accepted: 11 March 2015 / Published: 17 March 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1996 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper investigates the socio-ecological differences and interactions between upland and lowland areas in Shaxi Valley, Yunnan Province, Southwest China. As an analytical tool we used an extended Human–Environment System Framework by focusing particularly on the dynamics and sustainability of livelihood strategies and
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This paper investigates the socio-ecological differences and interactions between upland and lowland areas in Shaxi Valley, Yunnan Province, Southwest China. As an analytical tool we used an extended Human–Environment System Framework by focusing particularly on the dynamics and sustainability of livelihood strategies and mountain–valley interactions. Drawing from household surveys conducted in two mountain and two valley communities in 2005 and 2009, we show that the distinct income gap between mountain and valley households in 2005 ceased to exist in 2009. The main drivers for this development are the local tourist industry, persistent demand for forest resources, as well as local off-farm and seasonal migrant employment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Ecology and Sustainability)
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